May 17

Book Assignment #1

Due Thursday by 10 p.m.  500 words minimum.  

Please include the title of your book in your response.  

a. Summarize your reading for that part; also, this might be the part to examine bias in the book w/ specific examples.

b. Connect a historical thinking skill to your book segment – contextualization, comparison, change and continuity over time, synthesis, cause and effects, periodization (including turning points).

c. Connect your reading to something we’ve studied in APUSH.

d. Make predictions as to where your story will go (in your last assignment, this needs to be an evaluation – Give the book a grade – A, B, C, D, F – and a recommendation to keep the book for next year or ditch it and why).  This would also be where you can examine your connection (or lack thereof) to the characters or events.


Posted May 17, 2017 by geoffwickersham in category Book reviews

69 thoughts on “Book Assignment #1

  1. Jackson Blau

    A.I am currently reading the book Argo, by Antonio Mendez. This book was also turned into a movie that was nominated for seven Academy Awards. I have read the first seventy-five pages of the book and so far, most of it has been about context. This book takes place in the 1970s. The main conflict of this book starts on November 4th, 1979 when Iranian militants overthrow the United States embassy and take sixty-six hostages. These militants did this because of they saw the Americans as spy’s trying to undermine the Islamic Revolution that was occurring in Iran at the time. Also, this happened because the United States had let the shah into the country for emergency medical procedures. This was a big deal because the country of Iran wanted to try the shah for all of the crimes he had committed but the United States refused to give him up. The main character of this book, at the time, was working as the chief of the CIA’s worldwide disguise operations in the Office of Technical Services. The embassy had been attacked once before, nine months earlier, right after the shah of the country had fled. During this time period, Iran was a complete mess. The Ayatollah had returned from exile to Paris and the shahs government quickly collapsed. Across the country there were small groups called “komitehs” which fought over control of different territories within the country. While all of this fighting between komiteh’s was going on, The Ayatollah had installed a provisional government to try to maintain the country while a new constitution was being made. Despite all of this chaos, the United States didn’t close the embassy and abandon Iran for multiple reasons. The biggest being that Iran was just too important for the United States to lose. The country of Iran had been supplying the United States with tons of oil and also was a buffer zone for the Soviet Union whom Iran shares a sixteen-hundred mile border with. Carter, due to the tensions brought on by the Hostage Crisis, Carter halted all shipments of military supplies and spare parts to Iran, froze all of their money in American banks, and most importantly cut off the importation of Iranian oil. He did this as part of a two-pronged strategy to up the diplomatic pressure on Iran to release the hostages.
    B.Not mentioned in the book, America’s economy was also hurt at this time. This was because prior to Carter cutting off the importation of oil, the price of oil had sky rocketed due to the Iranian revolution. Protests severely disrupted the Iranian oil sector, with production being greatly curtailed and exports suspended. In November 1978, a strike by 37,000 workers at Iran’s nationalized oil refineries initially reduced production from 6 million barrels of oil per day to 1.5 million barrels of oil per day. Also, foreign skilled workers in Iran fled the country also leading to less production. OPEC was founded in 1960 by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Venezuela and Saudi Arabia, with other countries joining over the years, leading to its current twelve members. The enormous power it could wield internationally was first demonstrated in 1973. In resentment of Western support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the OPEC countries issued an oil embargo. This saw the price of oil jump from $17 a barrel to $55 in the space of a year. In this situation, OPEC had drastically hurt others by raising the price of oil. During this Energy Crisis of 1979, OPEC ramped up production to account for the drastic decline in production by Iran.
    C.In APUSH during the first trimester, we studied the 1970s. During this time period there was a huge womens rights movement. In this movement, Betty Friedan founded the National Organization of Women. They worked to get equal job and educational opportunities as men. In 1972, Title IX was passed by Congress which ensure equal opportunities for women in federally funded programs. The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by Congress and sent to the states for approval in 1972. 35 of 38 states agreed to it before conservative backlash killed it. This would’ve outlawed any sexual discrimination. Also during this time period, Roe v. Wade happened. This case allowed for abortions in the first trimester. Also in 1972, Rachel Carson wrote the book Silent Spring, this book sparked an environmental movement. The Arab Oil Embargo had also just happened. This was when OPEC stopped selling oil to the United States. This causes us to start looking for alternate sources of energy.
    D. I think that the main character in my story will end up creating a unique plan to save the hostages in Iran. I believe this because the main character seems like a very bright person. He has constantly said in the story that this new task he was faced with was the most challenging he had ever had and it wasn’t going to be simple for him to solve it. Another prediction I have is that something bad will happen to the main characters family. I predict this because at the beginning, he talked about his family a decent amount. Now, he sort of overlooks them and doesn’t really make time for them. I think this means something bad will happen to them because it will really open his eyes and start making him care for his family more.

  2. Riley Montgomery

    The Devil In The White City, by Erik Larson
    a) Larson writes about two different men, one who led the design of the Chicago World Fair in 1893, and the other a serial killer. Larson describes Chicago during the Gilded Age as much of it having low morals and disgusting. It was very smelly and the stockyards were a major industry where millions of animals were slaughtered. Suburbs like the one where Holmes lived, Englewood, were built right outside the city but it the right wind direction so the odor did not travel there. It was mostly stockyard supervisors and other upper-middle class citizens.
    Holmes was a handsome young man who was used to using his charm to get his way. He began as a school teacher and later a principle. He married, but often left for long periods of time and one day did not return. He came to Chicago and bought a pharmacy from a widow. He later bought a the empty land across the street with the plans of building a large building to have shops on the first floor with apartments and hotel rooms on the second and third floors. The building would also have another purpose; it was to be built with a chute form the second floor to the basement, strange vaults and passages, and a human-size kiln. He was very fraudulent and deceptive while having his building built. He would hire workers, falsely claim their work was bad, and not pay them. He would buy furniture and not pay for it, using his charm to deceive sellers. He also tried to get on the good side of the police by being friendly with them and giving them free meals at his restaurant. The book is somewhat biased at first, in the sense that Holmes is portrayed as smart and charming. I don’t think the book highlights Holmes bad side enough.
    Meanwhile Chicago was running short on time to build a warfare. It was to compete with the world fair in Paris, was intended to be ⅓ bigger than that of the Paris fair, and to show that America was better. It was supposed to open by 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of America, but the process was going slow and the economy was doing poor. A large British investments company was in trouble and there were other signs pointing to a recession, but still work for the fair continued. Architect partners Burnham and Root were chosen to lead the exposition. A major issue was choosing a site. There were two inland sites considered and several sites on the water. The final site chosen was Jackson Park. A landscape architect from New York, Olmsted, was hired, and so were 10 other architects from across the country to help design the various buildings that would be needed.

    b) The Devil in the White City takes place during the Gilded Age, a time of monopolistic robber barons ruling over a very poor, large working class. Labor Unions were forming and a large group of European immigrants desperate for jobs. Nativism arose in response and also the Chinese Exclusion Act was in place. Many railroads were being built. Edison invented the lightbulb and Tesla invented the AC motor. The government took a laissez-faire approach and the president at the time was a Republican, Benjamin Harrison. In 1889, Paris held

    c) This book relates to what we learned in class because a lot of it relates to what we learned about the Gilded Age. The bad smells and stockyards of Chicago are described more in depth in the Jungle, which we read in class and explores the terrible conditions of the workers of the stockyards. We also learned about the robber barons. One of them is mentioned in the book when it is said an architect was busy designing Vanderbilt’s manor. In class we learned mostly about the very rich and the very poor, but this book focuses more on the middle class.

    d) I think that next Holmes will continue his murder preparation and that construction for the fair will continue. I’m interested to see what kind of buildings will be designed and if they will complete the project in time.

  3. Gabe Abraam

    a. I am reading the book Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand, which is about a man named Louis Zamperini’s life story. He starts out as a child who often misbehaved and doesn’t get the best grades in school. Although, once he gets to high school, his brother convinces him to run track. Louis ends up being a very talented runner and gets an athletic scholarship at USC. Here he continues to become faster and faster in his event which is the one mile run, and makes it to the Olympic qualifiers. Here, he competes very well and makes it to the real Olympics in Berlin, Germany, in the year 1936. There is even a part in the book prior to his race where he shakes the hand of Hitler himself while he is watching the games. As Louis continues his college career, the book gives some context as to what is going on regarding the start of WWII. It talks about how Hitler was a rising power and influence in Germany and was planning to conquer Europe. It also briefly talks about how Japan was laying the same type of groundwork at the time to become a more powerful nation. Japan was also undergoing a stage of imperialism to its Asian neighbors, seeing them as “inferior” and trying to seize the countries. Then, after being a couple college credits short to graduate in 1941, Louis joined the Army Air Corps to help America fight in the second world war. The book then goes into the history of some of the planes made during the war time era. Louis plane in particular, called Super man, a B-24 bomber plane. Louis job was to be the bombardier, which is the man who drops the bombs themselves out of the back hatches on the planes. The crew is then stationed in Hawaii and given their first assignment, to bomb a place called Wake in Japan. There are many American POW’s there, but despite this, they all survive the successful bombing made my Louis and his team. The planes at this time that were built for the war were not the safest or most reliable. Many people died from them breaking down and crashing mid flight which caused a higher death rate among the air men of the military at the time.
    b. The cause and effect of both Japan and Germany becoming radically imperial countries at this time caused many effects worldwide. As both nations got fired up about gaining more land, and both eventually doing so, Britain was the first to step in and try to halt mainly Germany since it was geographically closer. President Truman for the United States later stepped in after Britain had and went for the Japanese first. They would attack and bombard them to defend our ally China and Indochina from being invaded more and more by the ever expanding Japan.
    c. The plot and time frame of the book most connect to our unit in APUSH regarding WWII. The book revolves around the main character and his crew being a part in fighting in WWII and also shows us what the US was like at the time too. It talks about the US economy and how they were making more war products for themselves and their allies, including planes, ships, and guns for war. This was also talked about in APUSH during our WWII unit and also discussed both in class and in the book, it talks about the start of the war. It talks about Germany and Japan having the same imperial ideas and how their quest for power turned parts of the world against each other to protect one another.
    d. I think that the story will eventually see Louis and his crew crashing, but I’m not sure how or where. I know this because of the previews for the movie Unbroken I had seen before. From here I think that it will revolve around their journey to become rescued and saved from nature. So far, I would rate the book an A because of the WWII context, which is very interesting to me. I also like track a lot and run it myself, and Louis story is quite exciting and motivating to read about.

  4. Emily Brown

    Fever 1793 by Laurie Halse Anderson
    Chapters 1-8

    A) Fever 1793 is told through the eyes of Matilda “Mattie” Cook. Matilda is a fourteen-year-old girl who lives with her mom, grandfather, and a few pets. above her family’s coffee house in Philadelphia. The novel opens on a humid morning in August 1793. Matilda’s mother yells for her to get up and get to work quickly since the serving girl, Polly, is running late. Mosquitos fly around annoying Matilda. Matilda dozes off once more before getting up and changing into her clothing that is much too small. Next, we meet Eliza, a free black woman who is the restaurant’s cook. Matilda’s mother runs the coffee house, a place for merchants, politicians, and townspeople to discuss and eat. While watering plants (which actually turn out to be weeds), Matilda’s mother returns and tells Matilda that Polly is not late; she is dead. Matilda is shocked and upset that her friend is dead. It is explained that Polly had just gotten a fever and died in bed. Also, the man across the alleyway is sick as well. Eliza wants Matilda to take food to Polly’s family, but Matilda’s mom won’t let her go and get exposed to the sickness. This same thing happens when Matilda tries to go the funeral. By noon that same day, men begin to talk about a horrible stench coming from the docks and how they’ve heard stories of a fever breaking out down by Ball’s Wharf. A doctor sets all the rumors straight when he says that the fever is called yellow fever and may become an epidemic so people need to take precautions. After a week, yellow fever has claimed sixty-four lives. People avoid the wharf so the coffeehouse gets busier by the day. Matilda runs to the market and runs into her crush, Nathaniel Benson. Just as they start to chat, the church bell rings which means another person has died from yellow fever. At the end of August 1793, Matilda and her mother are invited to the Ogilvie’s for tea. Matilda’s mom is excited because the boy, Edward, is a possible match for Matilda (but Matilda doesn’t like him since he isn’t Nathaniel). While at the Ogilvie’s house, Matilda notices one of the Ogilvie girls, Colette, is looking greenish and complaining about the heat frequently. Matilda is unsettled by this. Mrs. Cook asks lots about the Ogilvie boys and the other daughter, Jeannine, insults the cook family. Matilda yells at Jeannine, but before things get too heated, Colette collapses. Her mother feels her forehead and says that Colette has the yellow fever. In the beginning of September, mosquitos are swarming in Philadelphia and more and more people are dead. Eliza goes off to the Free African Society. At the end of the chapter, grandfather takes Matilda to the print shop. Her grandfather and Mr. Carris discuss the fever and the government’s plan to control it. While walking home Matilda wonders when the frost will come because frost kills fever. As they get home, a man is pushing a wheelbarrow with someone in it and dumps the body on the ground. It is Matilda’s mother. A bias in this section is the feeling of many of the townspeople disliking the refugees. They blame them for the start of yellow fever and most of the problems in the town.

    B) The time period after the American Revolution was one full of struggle and triumph. The Americans, full of nationalist emotions defeat the British and begin their own nation. Triumphs occur in the government having George Washington as president and declaring how we want to run our democracy. In the Treaty of Paris (1783) we get recognized as a nation and gain full rights to our territory. We replaced the weak Articles of confederation with the Constitution and its Bill of Rights. The Northwest Ordinances decided how states would be created. In 1794, Pennsylvania farmers opposed the tax on whiskey and rebelled. Washington exerted his power and shut down the Whiskey Rebellion. John Jay was sent to France to reach a compromise with Britain and France, but was unable. In 1797, the XYZ affair occurred where French agents tried to bribe U.S. diplomats. In 1803, the U.S. acquired the Louisiana Purchase and established judiciary review through the Marbury v. Madison case. Overall, I believe the U.S., a new nation, struggled in its foreign policy and affairs after the revolution and leading up to the War of 1812. We succeeded most in our policy at home and increased our nationalist feeling and solidified the U.S to soon be a world power.

    C) The book Fever 1793 connects to something we studied very early on this year. Eliza, a free black chef, in the book tells the reader that she was a slave, but her husband bought her freedom before he died. The narrator, Matilda, says that Pennsylvania is open to blacks and they can live freely there. In the beginning of first trimester, we learned about Pennsylvania and William Penn. Penn was the founder of Pennsylvania which actually means “Penn’s Woodland”. Penn used advertisement pamphlets to attract people to the colony. The Quakers are a group based out of PA. The Quakers promoted peace and religious tolerance to all. They didn’t even have a military in Pennsylvania. The Quakers believed in harmony between religions and were open to anyone in their colony.

    D) I believe that Matilda’s mom had yellow fever and will die from it. I know that this is an upsetting prediction, but it is likely because she had tea with the Ogilvie family in which there was the fever. I believe that Matilda will either stay at the coffeehouse and run it with Eliza or she will move away from the fever with her grandfather. I give this book an A because I enjoy reading it. It is easy to read and it is very entertaining. We all sort of connect to the characters/events because they have the yellow fever epidemic/outbreak. We had the Ebola scare which is similar, but did not kill many in the U.S. so it isn’t a huge connection.

  5. Jay Stansberry

    A. I am reading Argo by Antonio Mendez. I read the first 85 pages of the book which were mostly context. The pages I read described the main character, Tony, and his involvement in the CIA. The book also described the begging of the Iranian hostage crisis. The book goes into detail on how the Iranian militants stormed the United States embassy in Tehran, Iran on November 4, 1979, during the Iranian revolution. Most of the workers in the embassy thought that the protestors would go away like they did on Valentine’s day, but they didn’t and took all the Americans they could find, 52. Six Americans working in the consulate were able to escape, when one left to join her Iranian husband, the group eventually sought refuge with the British. Tony works for the CIA as the chief of disguise and tries to figure out a way to rescue the captured Americans when traditional diplomacy is impossible and a military operation is unlikely.

    B. This book takes place in 1979, during the Cold War. Part of the Cold War leading up to this was the Vietnam, which just ended in a US failure. It is also important to note that Iran’s importance stems from the Cold War as it borders the Soviet Union and the US wanted to keep it stable and Western, rather than communist. This is why we supported the Shah, which the Iranians hated as he was a dictator. Earlier in the decade, the OPEC oil embargo occurred which significantly increased the price of oil in America and hurt our economy. Though the oil Embargo was just one part of the larger energy crisis that persisted throughout the decade. Early on in the decade, the Watergate scandal resulted in the resignation of President Richard Nixon and the unelected Gerald Ford becoming president. As is seen, the Iran Hostage crisis capped off a tumultuous decade.

    C. This book connects to the Cold War. We have studied the Cold War and even though this wasn’t an act by the Russians, it is kind of like a proxy war. Both the US had made Iran allies after WWII, but Russia was supporting the communist party in Iran and trying to get them to ally with Russia. This battle over Iran is an example how the Cold War is shown in the book. The Cold War can also be seen through the CIA. The book mentions how the CIA has become more important during the Cold War and how both countries were using spies and becoming even better during the war. This can relate to the movie, Bridge of Spies, that we watched in class that showed the spy efforts of both the Soviet Union and the United States. It also briefly touches upon one of the reasons the Soviet Union fell when it describes how the CIA had an advantage over the KGB because it outsourced its production. The KGB ran on state run industries, and these state run industries led not enough money in the Soviet Union, resulting in it’s collapse.

    D. I predict that Tony is going to come up with a unique and creative plan to rescue the five Americans that escaped. His plan for saving all the hostages was shot down by the president, so I don’t think that the book will take that storyline and it seems that this group of escapees is going to be important to the story. I also believe that the other American, Lee Shatz will join with the consulate workers.

  6. Rachel Stansberry

    A.) The book, The Presidents and UFOs A Secret History From FDR to Obama, by Larry Holcombe is a book describing these exterrestrial ships and creatures that people often don’t hear about. The first part of the book introduces the readers to what the book will discuss about. Holcombe during this first part mentions people like Keyhoe. Keyhoe was a man who was a skeptic of exterrestrial ships at first. After he was assigned a job in researching these things, he became a firm believer. An idea shared and also shown throughout the book was that our government was and is trying to keep the majority of this information hidden from it’s citizens. Other people like Keyhoe were also assigned in doing major projects on UFOs including documentaries. These men (mentioned a man named Emenegger) would often discuss in the Pentagon or other areas. Holcombe also denies the idea of Area 51 being an area for keeping exterrestrial life and ships. Past the introduction of the book (which seemed like a report), the book describes some major, hidden events that happened during Roosevelt’s and Truman’s presidency. For example, it describes how even during Roosevelt’s years, there were missions to shoot out large UFOs (or scavenge fallen ones of Cape Girardeau) to keep away from public eye. Though Holcombe tries to stay on that time period during those chapters, he does skip or fast forward time a lot. Holcombe makes it clear in his writing that he is a believer of this exterrestrial situations, and those who do not are wrong.  As seen on page 23, Holcombe creates a list of things to set in your mind as you begin reading. When stating that “UFOs exist: The accumulation of evidence is so great that no reasonable person can any longer deny their existence” ( Holcombe, 23) shows where he stands on if aliens are real or not. Of course with this mindset, Holcombe isn’t going to be describing ways it doesn’t exist.

    B.) I think there has been a good amount of change in how people think UFOs. Back in Roosevelt’s time, UFOs weren’t thought of as much as they are today. Today we have more sci fi on aliens and these ideas, making these situations more problematic and worrisome. We can see great continuity in the government keeping stuff away from the citizens. So far I have read parts during the Roosevelt and Truman presidencies. This covered the time in which world war 2 occurred and is leading up to the Cold War. Mentioned in the book, atomic bombs were becoming a major thing and even at first were kept away from the citizens by government.

    C.) This book brings up many different events from APUSH. A good example would be watergate.  Of course, watergate as we’ve learned was one of the biggest scandals and could easily been seen as a big distraction. Holcombe mentions that watergate had distracted America from several things, including a large amount of exterrestrial evidence. With ideas like this, people can question how much stuff we were distracted by when events like watergate occurred.

    D.) I would so far give the book  a C rating. The book is indeed interesting, but the style isn’t the best. It doesn’t follow one particular person, or stay in one moment of time. The book jumps around a lot as well as written like a research report. Because of those reasons, I would not recommend it for next year. Also because it is written in a report style, it is difficult to make predictions. I know for sure that it will keep bringing up more facts on aliens, UFOs, and how the government is hiding it from us. However I cannot make predictions as it is based on scattered facts I have no clue about.

  7. Jordan Shefman

    The Astonishing Life of Octavian Nothing, Traitor to the Nation – Volume 1: The Pox Party is split up into four different parts. In the first of these parts, we are introduced to the main characters, a boy named Octavian and his mother, Cassiopeia. They live in a house in Boston during America’s struggle for freedom from Britain. The house, referred to as the Novanglian College of Lucidity by those who stay in it, is only a full-time home to a few, however, provides part-time shelter to many. Everyone who is provided residence in the college is extremely successful, whether they are philosophers, painters, singers, and so on. The one rule that Octavian has in the house is to not open a specific door, so naturally, one day, he opens it. He has been told all his life that his mom was an African Princess, however, discovers she was bought by the head of the house, Mr. Gitney as a slave, when she was pregnant with Octavian when he opens the door. Even though he sees it with his own eyes, he refuses to believe it. Upon arriving, all residents are given a number, based on the generation they come from and their importance in the house. So the first ruler of the house (the King of Great Britain) would be known as 01-01. 01-02 was the queen and 01-03 was the Prince of Wales. The second ruler of the house, 02-01, or the Earl of Cheldthorpe, who is a major patron to the house. When he dies, his nephew, the new Earl takes over and visits the house. He is immediately seduced by Cassiopeia and invites her and Octavian on his expedition through the woods to Lake Champlain in order to witness the Transit of Venus, a period of 5 hours where Venus comes into view from Earth. On the trip, Lord Cheldthorpe and Cassiopeia develop a relationship, and even Octavian, who was at first skeptical, grows to like him. Upon their return to the college, Lord Cheldthorpe asks Cassiopeia to come back to England with her, which she politely declines, to which he tells her she doesn’t really have a choice and begins to beat her. Before things get out of hand, Octavian bursts in yelling, “murder! Murder!” Both Octavian and Cassiopeia get whipped for the first time, and Lord Cheldthorpe leaves, taking all his money with him.

    The story takes place in Boston during America’s struggle for freedom from Great Britain. Octavian hears many people using the phrase, “No taxation without representation.” This was said by people in the 1750s-60s to express their beliefs that they should have a say in Parliment. They were being constantly taxed, yet had no representatives to voice their opinions. One of these taxes was the Sugar Act, taxing molasses, sugar, wines, and coffee. The tax caused the almost immediate decline in the rum industry in the colonies. Another one was the Stamp Act, a tax on paper, angered the colonists because they were already in massive debt from the 7 Years War, and now had to pay this tax on top of that. The book also makes reference to pre-revolution slavery, which made up 20% of the population. It’s not a big part of the plot, but definitely exists in the storyline.

    As described above, this story takes place in pre-revolution America, when we were disagreeing with Britain over freedom. Octavian is told not to leave the house, as it is a dangerous place in the real world, and is warned that if he does, he may never come back. It is said that British soldiers roam the streets, looking for people to attack. From this, we can tell that the story takes place after both the Boston Massacre (based on the people’s attitudes about the soldiers) and the Quartering Act (based on the soldiers that roam the streets). Both of these things were things that we studied in APUSH.

    I predict that later in the book, the Revolutionary War is going to play into the story. I also think that since the college houses some of the most well-known people of it’s time, some familiar people might show up (i.e. Ben Franklin, John Hancock etc.). It is hard to connect to Octavian because his life is so much different than mine. He lives in the 18th century, which makes a difference by itself, but is also a slave that receives a remarkable education. I have never experienced any of that in any way, therefore, I cannot relate.

  8. Joey Shapero

    a.) I am reading The Astonishing Life of Octavian Nothing Traitor to the Nation, Volume 1: The Pox Party by M.T Anderson. So far in the book I have learned of 2 major characters, Octavian and his mother Cassiopeia who are both slaves at a college in Boston back during the time of the taxation on colonists in America from the British. The two are treated very well, and Octavian is treated like a prince, there are treated this way so that the leader of this college who goes by 03-01 can prove that African Americans can be as smart as white people. Throughout this first part of the book we see Octavian go around through his classes at the college as he enjoys it very much. Some of the things Octavian does in his classes are outrageous, such as killing a dog in an experiment with chemicals. Octavian also explains to us how his mother used to be a queen in Africa, but was brought to Boston at the age of 13, pregnant with him. Octavian didn’t realize he was a slave until Bono (a slave at the college) explains it to him, and this get Octavian thinking in a different perspective about slavery. There is a room at the college where Octavian is told he can not go, one day he decides to sneak in and finds information about him and his mom, a picture of his mom with no clothes on, and a chart describing differences of animals and humans. He is found in the room and punished, his punishment is to carry 2 books for a very long time. Octavian is also portrayed throughout the section as a very talented violin player, who entertains guests of 03-10. Octavian and one of his professors see a man being tarred and feathered because he is a Customs Inspector during the time of great tension between England and the colonies over taxation without representation. A major donor of the college passes away and his son comes to the college to follow, this man, Lord Cheldthrope is very attracted to Cassiopeia and she is told to “treat him well” so that he will keep funding the university, Octavian is not very happy about this. Cheldthrope asked is he could take Cassiopeia and Octavian back to England with him, Cassiopeia and Cheldthrope got in a fight about her not wanting to go, Octavian intervened and tried to help his mom. The 2 were beaten and Cheldthrope left the college, leaving them with no more funding, and in a horrible state.
    b.) In this reading cause and effect is shown in one very obvious way. It is shown through the effects of Octavian finding out that he is indeed a slave. This makes him much wearier of other slaves and makes him think different about himself and his mother. Instead of living the enjoyable life of a so called prince at the college, he comes to realize he is only there for an experiment done by the college and he is hurt by this. He is not like any other slave, him and his mom are called by names instead of numbers, and they do not serve anyone as the other slaves would. Another cause and effect in this section is when Cheldthorpe begins to flirt with Cassiopeia and they look to be starting a personal relationship. Octavian despises this and we see his ideas through his actions of denial and hatred towards Cheldthorpe, Octavian even stands up for his mom and tries to fight Chelthrope to protect her.
    c.) This part if the book that I read connects to APUSH class through mainly the denial of English taxation upon Boston colonists. In class we saw the colonists protest the taxation without representation in many forms, such as strikes, the tea party, and also shown in the book the tar and feathering of an inspector. This is a huge aspect to colonist life back when they were ruled by the parliament and were unfairly taxed. We also see comments about manifest destiny in the book and the ignorance towards Native Americans as colonists just stormed in and unfairly took their land.
    d.) It is hard to predict what will come of this story in the upcoming events but one thing I think may happen is the shutting down of the college and selling of Octavian and his mom. I predict this because in the end of the section we hear of the major financial troubles the college is going through, and selling 2 slaves may be a way for the college to get some money back or it may shut down. I really can’t connect to Octavian as his life is so much different than mine other then the fact that he takes classes throughout the dy. His classes though, are much different than the ones I am in and the things that he does in these classes are outrageous.

  9. Andrew

    The book begins introducing some of the character like the main one, Louie, and his brother Pete. The narrator explains how Louie is a troublemaker and how he looks up to his big mature brother Pete. Pete encourages Louie to try running track since he is such a troublemaker that does nothing. Louie doesn’t really want to at first, but he eventually decides to give it a shot and finds out that he is decently good at it. He then becomes really good at it and breaks some school records. Louie begins to really like running track and finds out that he is a running prodigy. He broke many high school records nationally and has dreams of the Olympic games. His worry though is that he won’t be good enough and won’t make the cut so he starts to doubt himself for a small period of time. He enters a race in Compton and ends up winning, and because of that he gets an invite to the Olympic trials. He trains in the blistering heat of New York and competes in the trials. Despite not finishing in first place Louie manages to get a spot of the Olympic team. Louie sets out on a huge boat to the 1936 Olympics and eats so much on the boat that he gains 12 pounds. He comes in 7th place for his event, but breaks the record for the fastest last lap of the race. He gets the honor of meeting Hitler. Louie sets back home from his long fun journey and sets on training for the 1940 Olympic games in Tokyo.

    During this time period, the Nazi empire was on the rise and German nationalism was at its biggest peak of their time. Hitler was in complete control, and he was building their empire to be the biggest international threat. The year of this time period in the book in 1936 because that was the year of the Berlin Olympic games. The US was not involved in the war nor had Hitler even invaded Poland at this point. But in history, this was the time period where Hitler was building his empire larger and larger and Nazism was growing within the nation, of Germany. Hitler had not made any moves, but he was building a magnificent military and he was getting a lot of attention. The United States was also in the middle of the Great Depression with FDR as the president.

    This portion of the reading really connects to when we talked about the 1936 Olympics. This was Hitler’s Olympics and he was going to run the show. We talked in class about all the things he wanted for his Olympics and we also touched on the colossal stadium that he planned to build for the track and field events. We also talked about the racial discrimination and just racism throughout the German nation and how some of the athletes handled it. We discussed Louie Zamperini as well as Jesse Owens.

    My predictions to where the story will go is that Louie will end up being drafted into the Second World War. This is primarily because I’ve heard the story about Louie Zamperini and many Americans have, and I know for a fact that he will get drafted into the war. I do not know how he handles being drafted with his family though and if he is extremely sad about not being able to compete in the 1940 Olympics. I predict that he will take a combat job in the military and perhaps somewhat like serving for his country a little. I also predict that he will meet many new friends while he serves for America in the war. My connection with Louie Zamperini is his sports. I was encouraged to play hockey by my father like Pete encouraged Louie and I found out that I was pretty decent at the sport. Louie loves track and I love hockey. I would give this book a B so far just for he fact that the book rushes through the Olympic games and doesn’t focus too much on that time in Louie’s life. I know the moral of the story and main part of the story is his time in Japan at the POW camp but I wish the author went more in detail about the Olympics Games. It was a very short description in my opinion. I would recommend to keep this book next year so far because I’m sure it will get really good once he goes to war and the reviews for this book were through the roof. I am excited to read the rest and so far it seems to be a pretty decent and interesting book.


  10. Brett

    a.) The book starts in June 1982, where President Reagan speaks about the heroics and motivation behind the D-Day invasion and what those men fought for. Two years later, he gives a famous speech at Pointe du Hoc on June 6, 1984, where he commemorates the 225 men of the 2nd Ranger Battalion who 40 years prior scaled the cliffs to seize the German guns that threatened the landing zones below; it is said that this speech helped revived Americans’ interest in WWII and created newfound respect for American WWII veterans. The book then covers the meaning of the term “ranger” throughout US history, the term originating from the men who scouted the wilderness outside of Jamestown in 1607, and the many elite units conceived during many American wars of the past such as Morgan’s Riflemen during the Revolutionary War and the Texas Rangers during the Texan War for Independence and the Mexican-American War. In 1942, Col. William Darby gets permission from Gen. George Marshall to assemble a unit of elite fighting men modeled after the British commandos, and forms the 1st Ranger Battalion of several hundred men. After months of extensive training, the battalion is sent to Africa in late 1942 and Sicily in 1943 where the men establish themselves as a very effective fighting force. The battalion’s success allows Darby to form a second battalion, composed of new recruits trained by members of the 1st Battalion and led by Major James Rudder. Months of intensive training in amphibious warfare and small team tactics, along with brutal physical training, build the unit into a tight-knit band of brothers. 2nd Ranger Battalion is sent to England in late 1943 where D, E, and F Company (with 75 men each) are given the task of assaulting Pointe du Hoc on D-Day. The 225 men spend the months before the invasion practicing the attack, familiarizing themselves with their landing craft and newly employed secret weapons to help them scale the cliffs such as the grappling hook.
    b.) Change and continuity is present in this segment of the book. Prior to the creation of the Army Rangers in WWII, General Dwight Eisenhower and General George C. Marshall had been focused on the expansion of the US Army into a conventional modern fighting force numbering millions of men and thousands of trucks, armored vehicles, and other weapons of war, and had no intention of creating an unconventional force that could carry out operations such as raids or prisoner rescues. Despite giving permission to Col. Lucian Truscott to form the 1st Ranger Battalion, Eisenhower still had his concerns, believing that such an elite force would steal the best men and material that the ever-expanding Army needed more than anyone else. In addition, Eisenhower simply did not see a place for special forces in conventional warfare. After the battalion’s successes in combat, Eisenhower had a change of heart, and granted the creation of two more Ranger battalions. Even after the expansion of the Rangers, Eisenhower and Marshall still generally placed the Army ahead of the Rangers in conventional warfare, though the Rangers would get more and more “special” missions.
    c.) This book segment connects to APUSH in that it explores many of the noteworthy elite infantry formations that existed in times of conflict, such as Morgan’s Riflemen of the Revolutionary War and the later War of 1812, the Texas Rangers of the Mexican American War and the Texan War for Independence, Mosby’s Rangers of the Civil War, and other groups, and how their actions made them famous and legendary. This book also connects to the importance of WWII in US history, as the war was a turning point in the US’ role in the world and marked the beginning of the Cold War, which would define the next 45 years of our nation’s history.
    d.) I predict the men assigned to Pointe du Hoc will face heavy resistance from the Germans guarding the guns and will take fire from the guns themselves. I also think the men will encounter some unanticipated obstacle that will hinder their progress and result them taking heavier losses.


  11. geoffwickersham (Post author)

    My book is “His Excellency George Washington,” a biography by Joseph J. Ellis. The book is divided into three portions-one describing Washington’s service in the Royal Army during the French and Indian War, one describing his generalship in the Revolutionary War, and one summarizing his two terms of president.

    Currently, I am still reading the first part. Asides from covering what we learned in class about Washington’s unfortunate encounter with French emissaries and the Half Kind, I also learned a lot about Washington’s personal life. For example, I learned that Washington married Martha for the estate she inherited, while he was actually in love with Sally Fairfax, the wife of his best friend. I also learned that Washington was sterile, and as Ellis cleverly puts it, “the Father of Our Country who was incapable of biologically producing children.” I also learned about the Virginia Regiment- an elite group of blue-coat Virginia sharpshooters who were trained in guerrilla warfare, created by Washington after the disastrous Braddock campaign. Their uniforms and tactics would serve as inspiration for the Continental Army, despite the fact that high ranking British generals (including Braddock) dismissed the Virginia Regiment as cowardly and un-British. Ellis also went in depth about Washington’s shrewd financial management-he fell victim to the allure of fancy British goods and spent himself into crippling debt. Unlike many farmers of the day (including fellow Founding Father, Thomas Jefferson), Washington caught on to the scam, fought his creditors both in the courts and in the markets, and managed to free himself from the grip of his bankers-his conflict with British industry would fuel his passions in the Revolutionary War.

    One of the reasons why Washington’s debt grew out of proportion was because his creditors charged him rates and prices up to 20% higher simply because he was a colonial. After the passage of the Stamp Act and a colonial outcry, many Britons began to see the colonies as an uncivilized, degenerate rabble. The context of growing tensions between colonists and Britain is seen in Washington’s financial plight.

    This connects to the French-Indian war. Like the movie we saw in class, the book goes in depth when it describes how Washington watched and did nothing as the Half King’s warriors scalped the entire French diplomatic mission, and then how French officers tricked Washington into admitting complete responsibility by having sign a document in French that Washington couldn’t read. The book also told how Washington was “hit” by four musket balls-fortunately for him, three of them simply tore through his coat without actually colliding with skin. The last one left a minor scratch, and Washington would go on to write that his battles near Fort Duquesne were far more terrifying than anything he had ever experience during the Revolution.

    Washington, for unknown reasons, cut off relations with his father around the age of eleven. He turned to his half-brother Lawrence as a father figure, and Lawrence provided. He taught Washington the principles of gentry and finance, and took him on a trip to the Caribbean to search for a remedy to Lawrence’s tuberculosis.

    I can’t really make any predictions, as it is a biography. I know for a fact that Washington pulls himself out of debt and goes on to lead the Continental Army and become President, but I guess that qualifies as a spoiler.


  12. Caitlyn

    a. Within this portion of the novel Fever 1793 by Laurie Halse Anderson, it first explains the circumstances of a teenage girl Matilda Cook’s life. She lives above a coffeehouse that her family, her mother, and her grandfather own. Her father died while on top of a ladder two months after the coffeehouse was opened. Within the coffeehouse alongside the cook family works Eliza, a free black woman who’s an excellent cook and one of Matilda’s best friends. Within the first chapter of the book Mattie’s being forced awake by her mother Lucille because today not only does she have her own chores to do, but also her servant girl Polly’s whose strangely late. As Mattie goes about her chores serving the coffee house customers and tending to the garden her mother goes to fetch Polly. When her mother returns they soon find out that Polly had suddenly died from what they think is simply miasma from the immigrants near the water. As the novel progresses they later find that there’s an epidemic going around of yellow fever. Her mother wants to send Mattie away to the country where the air is clean, but her grandfather refuses to believe it. Everyone is forced to reality when her mother catches it; now she and her grandfather are forced to set for the country while the doctor and Eliza tend to her mother.

    b. During this period of American History women were more aware of their morality and how they dressed and behaved themselves. Women in this era were constantly aware of any skin showing especially ankles and forearms which Mattie mentioned. These places were deemed as promiscuous and unladylike so no matter the weather women kept them covered. There was also a way to conduct themselves in front of men such as curtsying and proper language which Mattie continued to think about and remind herself of when she was in the presence of Nathaniel Benson.

    c. We’ve studied about the uncleanness of American cities and how the community’s hygiene was horrific. When Mattie discussed how she would wash in December and it was August it showed her lack of awareness of hygiene and cleanliness. Mattie also talked about throwing a rat into the street while people were walking which shows how their society was, since rats were so normal for them to have, even though they ran a coffee house.

    d. I predict that Mattie and her grandfather will move to the country until winter comes which breaks the fever. I also predict that her mother will survive, but someone else close to them such as Eliza or Nathanial Benson will die as a victim to the fever just to show how deadly and terrible the epidemic was and how many families lost their loved ones; Mattie’s being an example of that. I connect with this book in the way that my mother and I don’t get along well much like Mattie and her mother don’t. I often feel the same about my mother as Mattie does, she’s bitter and mean for no reason and when my father isn’t home is when she turns this way. However when my father is home or in Mattie’s case, when he was alive, her mother is sweet and gentle and happy. This is what I related to the most because it seems the older I get the more my mother and I differ.

  13. Eric Ajluni

    The book I am reading currently is “How Abraham Lincoln Ended Slavery in America” by Harold Holzer.
    a. The first quarter of the book has 2 distinct parts, it begins with going over the state of the government and Lincoln in the months leading up to his death, and then makes a time jump backwards to his upbringings as a young boy into the start of his political career. In the first section Lincoln is working tirelessly to make sure slavery meets its end. He goes day after day arranging meetings, debates, and campaigning for his second term in office. He won this campaign, but as he was ready to begin his second term he was preoccupied with the heated topic of the 13th Amendment and what Congress would do about it. It would take a lot of effort to change America forever by taking out a staple aspect of American society up to that point, but Lincoln’s efforts are described as he got little sleep or free time. On February 1st 1865 he gave his speech going over the success of change, and described it as a “great moral victory.” However Lincoln had to deal with backlash from Congress, but despite this Illinois went on to approve the Amendment and the other states followed. Lincoln died before the required number of states ratified it, but his name was in history forever attached to this change. The story then flashes back to Lincoln’s early years. He was known as a strong kid who worked jobs to support his poor family, his father Thomas Lincoln, was a farmer. But as he grew and moved around with his family, his opinion of slavery continued to grow negative. When he was a young man he went down to New Orleans with friends and there they saw slave auctions as they happened. Lincoln was disgusted by this, and upon reading more texts about Washington and the saying “all men are created equal”, he knew slavery was wrong. He did not have much of an education but read constantly with the help of his stepmother and eventually taught himself to be a lawyer. It was this that led him down the path to deciding to be a politician rather than do physical labor for a living after moving away from his family.

    b. Cause and Effect is one of the main ways Lincoln’s story is told so far in the book. It goes over two time periods, the very end and very start of Lincoln’s life, and makes correlations about what caused Lincoln to be the way he was and do what he did. The story starts by describing several moments where Lincoln condemned slavery and described it as purely wrong, even saying “ if slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong”. He expresses how this was a victory for morality itself, and how all people deserve to be free. It then flashes back to Lincoln’s childhood, where they go over experiences he had that made him think this way for the rest of his life. Lincoln’s first home area in Kentucky did not have an abundance of slavery, but it still featured it, and his father’s religious views that slavery was wrong had an early impression on him. He would read books going over all men being equal, and even had a real experience when he had to defend a helpless Indian from being attacked by his fellow townsfolk. Most notably, he was disgusted by slave auctions in New Orleans at the sight of children being beaten and separated from their families. All these early influences were major causes for Lincoln’s want to end slavery forever in America.

    c. This reading connects to APUSH as it gives fleshed out stories about the life of Abraham Lincoln, one of the most important figures in American history. Lincoln ended slavery, one of the major topics of APUSH, and was partly responsible for the Civil War, one of the major events in APUSH. Both these topics and of course the man himself are the focus of this book, as it fleshes them out and explains what triggered Lincoln to be the man he was.

    d. My predictions for the novel is that it will go a lot more in depth about a middle aged Lincoln and the experiences he went through as a professional, as well as the dynamics of his personal/love life. I also predict this will lead into how he started his family. The connection to these events we would have to current day is that these experiences and influences on a young man in the 1800s would change the way our country and the world would be shaped all the way up to now and the future. Lincoln grew up in a very different America than what we have today and that is described in the novel, so we can compare that to now and see where prejudice was present nearly 200 years ago. But we also see how these experiences shaped the man who helped shaped the America we know today.

  14. Stav D

    The novel Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand, follow the story of Louie, an Olympic athlete who is forced to join the military. When the book first starts, the author gives some background on who Louie is. She explains that he is the son of Italian immigrants, and that he has been causing trouble even at a young age. Louie’s older brother Pete wants to help Louie and get him off the bad path that he is going down, so he convinces the school to let Louie run track despite his problems. Louie doesn’t do well at first and even attempts to runaway after having conflicts both at home and with himself on the track. Louie returns home eventually, but this time he is ready to work hard and train. Louie gets really competitive and eventually puts his best into the Compton Open and does so well he gets sent to the Olympics. Louie performs well, finishing 8th, but he comes home ready to train for the Japan Olympics. Then, World War 2 fighting breaks out and the United States eventually must form a draft. Louie initially enlists himself to the air force, returns home, and then once again returns to the air force as a bomber. Louie is trained alongside several other men, then sent to Hawaii to begin their actually fighting. These men didn’t complete their training, but people believed that there simply wouldn’t be enough time and that the men would just have to be deployed early. Louie and the other bombers he was trained with get sent out to attack Wake Atoll, a Japanese base. They manage to return home safely, and their victory is praised by many. The context of this book is set in the WW2 fighting years for the United States (late 1930’s). During this time, America was going through several problems. Many things such as food, gas, and clothing were being rationed. Growing fear and hatred for the Japanese caused the Japanese Americans to become oppressed. Pearl Harbor happened during this time period which is what ultimately thrust America into the war and what caused us to send Louie and similar bomb droppers to Wake Atoll in the first place to bomb them. We obviously studied WW2 and the causes and effects of it in APUSH, and one main cause, Pearl Harbor, is mentioned in the book. The book describes that the nation was shocked when this happened and how this ultimately caused Louie and others to be sent to Hawaii to prepare for their own American attack. In APUSH we talked about Pearl Harbor too and how it shocked the nation. I think that Louie is going to get captured because I read a summary before selecting this novel. However, I’m interested to see how this goes down and by who. My prediction is that he will be POW of Japan primarily because Japan is so prevalent in the novel (and in the war). Also, my prediction would be that this happens after a failed air attack on some Japanese base.

  15. Ethan P

    a. I am reading Argo, by Antonio Mendez, which was turned into a highly acclaimed movie I didn’t even know existed. The story (as of the first four chapters) focuses mainly on the context of what happened in regards to the Iran hostage crisis, during which Iranian militants/“students” raided the American Embassy in Tehran on November 4th, 1979 and sixty six hostages were taken. The militants raided the embassy because they feared American influence and spying in Iran, especially surrounding the numerous coups involving an Islamic Revolution. Because of these revolutions, the shah, or the monarch of Iran, sought refuge in the United States, and because the United States accepted him in, the Iranians got even madder, eventually raiding the embassy. Mendez (who I’m assuming is the narrator) is in charge of the CIA’s operations of disguises in the Office of Technical Services, or OTS. His job is to come up with disguises and plans on how to restore order to the Iranian situation, seeing as all of the CIA’s agents and spies in Iran broke contact because of the uprising. Mendez also talks about how six Americans, working with the embassy, escaped the raid and had to hide from the militants in Tehran.

    b. This story takes place right in the middle of the migration to the Sun Belt and the rise of conservatism during the 1970s. During this time, many people began seeing the Northern Rust Belt as a less desirable place to live and, as a result, moved to the Southern Sun Belt. Alongside this massive migration, many Americans, including most of those that had moved to the Sun Belt, began retreating away from the liberalism that was previously more popular, as exemplified by Jimmy Carters election. The movement toward conservatism can be seen as being caused by Carter’s ineffective and sometimes “spineless” actions, as seen by Carter’s now infamous malaise speech.

    c. This novel directly deals with the Iran hostage crisis, which we studied in October while discussing the Carter administration. Like I previously stated, the American Embassy in Tehran, Iran was raided by young militants wanting to rebel against American influence in Iran. They mostly feared the CIA’s influence in the area, which was not as vast as they suspected it to be. During this crisis, Carter’s ineffective methods of trying to negotiate with the militants ended in more aggression, until the hostages were released on January 20th, 1980, just after Ronald Reagan got inaugurated, probably just to spite Carter.

    d. It’s a little disappointing to me that I know how the story is going to end for the hostages, but I don’t know how it’s going to end for Mendez. From what I have read about the book from summaries and allusions in the text itself, I think that Mendez will have to go to Iran, in one of his own well-crafted disguises, and work as an operative to try to help in some way to stabilize the situation. I also think that the Hollywood artist that the CIA hired to try to create a replacement for the shah will somehow get involved in the process, probably in the disguising.

  16. Megan D

    I am reading The Help by Kathryn Stockett. In the section that I just read, not too much happened. The book changes between three character’s points of view; Miss Skeeter, Aibileen, and Minny. Aibileen is a black maid working for Miss Leefolt. She is older and her son died about three years ago. Miss Leefolt has just built Aibileen a separate bathroom to use outside so her white guests don’t have to use the same on asher and get her “diseases”. Minny is also a maid and used to work for Miss Walters, but Miss Hilly, Miss Walters daughter, sends Miss Hilly off to a retirement home and tells the whole town that Minny was stealing. Minny ends up getting a job with a strange woman that lives farther out of town, but Miss Celia won’t tell her husband about Minny. Miss Skeeter is a white woman who is friends with Miss Hilly and Miss Leefolt. Miss Skeeter is unmarried and is an aspiring writer. She got a job answering questions in an advice column and gets help from Aibileen, since she knows nothing about cleaning. Miss Skeeter is writing back and forth with a woman in New York about her writing and Miss Skeeter wants to write a book about interviews with black maids so she can capture their point of view as black maids in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1962. She got this idea from Aibileen, who told Miss Skeeter that her son was writing a book about working for a white person before he died. Miss Skeeter wants to interview Aibileen for the piece, but Aibileen doesn’t want to because she is afraid that she will get in trouble.
    During the 60s people of color were still being greatly discriminated against. They were put in lower paying jobs that required more physical labor. This is very similar to the antebellum period of America. In the antebellum period, slavery was very prevalent, especially in the south. The roles of Aibileen and Minny were very similar to that of a house slave, even their relationship with their bosses was nearly identical to that of a slave to their master. Both jobs would require cleaning the house, taking care of the children, and making food. The relationship between a maid and her boss was very formal and the maid was never able to insult or talk back to their boss, much like a slave. Where the maid was formal and polite, the boss was often rude and demanding. When Miss Leefolt’s daughter tried to use the bathroom meant for Aibileen, she scolded her and told her that she might get diseases from Aibileen because she was black. This was similar to the sentiment of most white slave owners during the antebellum period. The only difference between slave and maid, was that the slave could quit, was probably not abused, and paid $1 and hour.
    The Civil rights movement was going on during the action of this book. The characters in the book reference the freedom riders, MLK, Rosa Parks, and are very aware of the current state of America. The book also mentions James Meredith going to college in Mississippi and Miss Skeeter is surprised that he was able to. The Civil Rights movement is in full swing as the book takes place. In class we also learned about Women’s role in the fifties. I see Miss Celia, Minny’s new boss, trying to uphold these roles but is having trouble. She is supposed to have kids, clean the house, and cook a good meal for her husband every night, but Miss Celia isn’t a good cook and gets help from Minny without her husband knowing. I think she is trying to compensate for the fact that she hasn’t had kids by cleaning well and cooking but she doesn’t know how to do either of those. To make sure her husband doesn’t think she is a bad wife she looks for help, but wants to keep it a secret so it looks like she is the perfect wife.
    All the character in the book so far are intertwined but not as much as I think they will be by the end of the book. I think that Miss Skeeter will convince Aibileen to interview for her book and she’ll get Minny to also. I think that these women will probably get in trouble for it, but I also think that the book will be published and have great success. The white housewives I think will also play a part, especially Miss Celia and Miss Leefolt, but I am still not exactly sure how. I am just in the beginning of the book and I am excited to see what happens as the book goes on because I feel the story could go in many different directions right now.

  17. Ben Iverson

    The first section of Flesh & Blood So Cheap gives the reader background information of New York’s immigrant groups and the conditions they lived in leading up to the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. Marrin goes into detail describing the conditions faced by Russian Jews and Italians that forced them out of their home country and to the United States. He details the oppression faced by the Jews and the government corruption and natural disasters that plagued the Italians. Marrin then depicts the brutal journey across the Atlantic to Ellis Island and the reception immigrants will receive once they arrive. The first section finishes up by describing in detail the scene of New York tenement housing and the gross inequality among classes. Marrin does a good job of presenting information free from bias. He provides two both sides of every story and does not try to persuade the reader.
    The arrival of new wave immigrants to the United States has a variety of causes and effects. Each ethnic group had their own specific reasons for fleeing their nations. For Italians, push factors included extreme poverty, unfair treatment by the government, and natural disasters. Pull factors to the United States included the promise of economic prosperity and a fair government. Jews had their own push factors, namely persecution by the Russians and being forced into The Pale of Settlement, a poor region where Jews could not leave. The ideas of religious tolerance and economic opportunity pulled them to America. These New Wave immigrants merging into American society would have a large effect on the nation. First, the cities (especially New York) saw their populations skyrocket with immigrants, many of which settled in their own ethnic communities. With this population boom, living conditions suffered for poor city dwellers. Another impact of their immigration is the rise of nativism; “native” white people were fearful that the new immigrants would steal their jobs and destroy the national identity.
    We’ve discussed the effects of New Wave immigrants a lot in class, however, we have not gone into specifics about why they left their homelands. This book builds on what we’ve already discusses. Additionally, the book also touches on the horrific conditions of tenement housing in New York, something we have covered in depth in class. These apartments were over crowded, had little to no ventilation, lacked toilets, and were breeding grounds for infectious diseases. In class, we watched a few videos and read a portrait that details many similar things. Marrin’s book also briefly touches on income and spatial inequality in the city, which we’ve studied in class as well. He compares the four story, 85 room mansion of Andrew Carnegie to the nearby slums where children sleep on fire escapes. Marrin also brings up Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth. Nearly everything discussed in the beginning of this book was covered in our unit of the Progressive Era.
    Considering the fact that this book is informational and depicts a topic that we’ve covered in class, it is pretty obvious where it is going. I expect Marrin to continue describing the haphazard living and working conditions of NYC in order to set up the perfect storm for the Triangle Shitwaist Factory Fire. It will also likely examine the lives of some of the women killed in the tragedy.

  18. Lexy Schusterbrown

    a) The book The Autobiography of Malcolm X begins before Malcolm is even born with the horrific story surrounding the racism and white supremacy surrounding his mothers pregnancy; Ku Klux Klan members break the windows to their house and target their family because of Malcolm’s father Earl’s standing as a Baptist preacher as well as his participation in Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). Gavel’s organization supports transportation of African American back to Africa, a philosophy that had persisted in America previously. Malcolm is the only child of his siblings who his father doesn’t beat and he gets to attend the UNIA meetings with his dad. Malcolm takes after his mother, a mixed race and light-skinned woman who’s biological father was an unknown white man that raped her mother. After the family moved, they are repeatedly targeted by other white supremacist groups and Malcolm is cheated by white people. Malcolm remarks on the class differences, and how African Americans seemed to lack the more distinguished jobs because those were primarily occupied by whites.
    b) During the time of Malcolm X’s birth (1925), white supremacist organizations like the KKK were on the rise due to societal changes such as immigration, migration, etc. Prohibition also hadn’t yet been repealed during the era, however it was eventually abolished through the 21st amendment during Malcolm’s childhood. The roaring 20s were an interesting time for all people because of the prominence of many movements like the woman’s rights movement; however, the acceptance of the 19th amendment for women’s suffrage didn’t bring an extreme change for Malcolm X’s mother, as she was still continually harassed and abused by white supremacists. Despite the horrific treatment received by Malcolm, his family, and other African Americans in America, across the country in Harlem, a cultural identity that altered African American culture was formed: rebellion came in the form of art, music, poetry, etc., in the Harlem Renaissance. Malcolm X’s family later struggled during the Great Depression that struck the country and severely hurt minorities; Malcolm mused about the fact that African Americans were usually seen shining shoes, poor, or without jobs because of the intentional racism of employers and the system.
    c) Malcolm X’s struggle with white supremacists in these chapters is similar to the rise of the KKK during the twenties and the xenophobic and racist rhetoric which spread throughout the country. Malcolm describing the lesser economic opportunities and unfulfillment in their work of African Americans reflected the views of men like Booker T. Washington, a black activist who fought for African Americans to have more fulfilling jobs and economic opportunities.
    d) I think that the book will later include more struggle by Malcolm with his positition in the country. My prediction is that Malcolm X will be imprisoned, eventually discovering the Muslim faith and becoming literate, then writing his autobiography. He will comment repeatedly on the necessity of violence in the fight for Civil Rights. I give this book an A because despite being a primary source, it’s extremely interesting and provides an interesting look into an interesting man. As Malcolm X was so relevant to history, his story should be kept in the curriculum. I’m connected to the struggle of Malcolm X, and though i could never understand what life is like in America for black people, I sympathize with the situation.

  19. Kyle Alkatib

    a. I am currently reading The Devil In The White City by Erik Larson. This book is about two different stories and two different people. One person is an architect who is building skyscrapers in Chicago and one is a serial killer. In the beginning of the book, Erik Larson describes what Chicago was like back then in the Gilded Age. He explains it as disgusting, very smelly and it was a place where many animals were slaughtered in the stockyards. Most of the stockyard owners and managers and the upper and middle class citizens lived in the Suburbs. Holmes also lived in the suburbs. A young man named Holmes started off as a school teacher and eventually became a principle. He used his charm all the time to get his way and to do whatever he wants. Holmes eventually got married and all of a sudden he starts to disappear and then he comes back later. One day he never came back. He never came back because he moved to Chicago and bought a pharmacy and the land across from it. The reason he bought the land across from his pharmacy was so that he can build his own building with shops and hotel and apartment rooms. There were also many weird things built inside like a human sized kiln, weird vaults and a chute to the basement. He did not spend as much money as he should have on the building because he did not pay his workers and he got furniture for free using his charm. He used his charm many ways to get his way when he was building his building. The other story about architecture is about the fair. Chicago wanted to make a world fair to honor the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus. This fair was supposed to be bigger than the Paris fair but it took a while to make this fair. The economy was doing bad and there was almost a recession so one of the British investors was in trouble but everything ended up working out and the fair was still built. The architects that were building this fair were Burnham and Root. It was very hard for them to choose were the fair was going to be but then they finally decided that it was going to be in Jackson Park. Many architects were hired and the fair would now be built.

    b. The Gilded Age is the time period that The Devil In The White City was in. During this time many immigrants were coming into the U.S. for jobs and many people started to practice nativism which means that they do not want immigrants to come in. Because of this nativism many bans on who can come to the U.S. and who can’t were made. The president during this book was Benjamin Harrison and he took a more laissez-faire approach on government. Also, labor unions started to form. A lot of different things like railroads and other technological innovations like the lightbulb were being built and being seen for the first time.

    c. This book is set in the Gilded Age which we learned all about in class. We learned about how the place was trashy and smelly and how animals were being slaughtered. We also read many primary sources in class and we also read the Jungle which all went in depth about how the Gilded Age was. There are many other things in this book that we have learned in class like the robber barons which were the captains of the industry. This book also talks about the different classes whether is was the rich or the poor or the middle class. We learned about all of this in class a few weeks ago and this is a good reminder of all of that.

    d. I predict that the fair will continue to be built and finally open. I think that once it opens that there will be millions and millions of people coming from all around the world to Chicago just to see the fair. I also can’t wait to see how the fair will turn out architecture wise becuase I think that is very interesting. Holmes will also continue to plan our his murder and actually do it. He will probably use the building that he built to do it.

  20. Hank Peters-Wood

    The novel Unbroken, by Laura Hillenbrand, tells of the exhilarating and constant changing life of Louis Silvie Zamperini. The novel begins with the early years of Louie’s life. As a youth, Louie was quite the delinquent; always out causing trouble and partaking an various mischievous activities. His actions started off simple, with harmless pranks and small scale theft. But as he grew older, these innocuous activities turned into dangerous ones. Fighting with fellow teenagers and even police officers, Louie was risking much greater consequences than ever before. Eventually, after he witnessed a neighbor go under consideration for sterilization (due to his reckless/incompetent behavior) and his brother Pete’s constant good influence, Louie started to clean up his act. Pete, who was an intelligent, athletic, successful, and exemplary in character, determines a tactic to better Louie’s character. When Louie is caught doing a harmless stunt at school, that causes Louie to be banned from school activities, Pete is able to convince the principal to allow Louie to join the track team, in order to clean up his act. With Pete’s discipline, scrutinization, and coaching methods, Louie discovers he is a fairly talented long distance runner. However, after consistent training, Louie determines that training and family life is too demanding of him, and he decides to run away. He doesn’t make it far, however, and he returns to Pete’s training routines back home. After lots of hard work, Louie becomes a very successful high school runner, and earns himself a chance to compete at the college level, at the University of Southern California. Here, he continues his success and truly finds himself as a runner. Through more months of hard work, Louie eventually wins multiple college competitions and a prestigious New York race, which earned him a spot on the 1936 United States Olympic Team in Berlin, Germany. Hi journey to the Olympics was long and full of various obstacles and challenges, but with perseverance and help along the way, he was able to achieve his dream. His trip to Berlin was full of wonder: new places, new food, new people. Once in Berlin, he just barely qualified for the final rounds of the 1500 meter race. But with a little bit of unique inspiration from his brother Pete, he was able to finish as the top American in the race , giving him a celebrity status among Olympians and American citizens. Once back home in California, Louie continued his vigorous training for the next Summer Olympics. Devastatingly to him though, these Olympics would be canceled due to the impending war. As tensions escalated worldwide, Louie wasn’t sure what his future would hold. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and the true start of World War II, Louie tried to enlist in the Air Force, but later dropped out due to his uneasiness. However, eventually he was drafted and sent back to the Air Force. He went through an immense amount of training, in his home state, to be able to be a bomber pilot. He, and the rest of trainees, were eventually sent to a base in Hawaii, where they would conclude their training and be based out of. Though the still had training left, they were cut short, and Louie and the rest of his squadron were to be prepared to fight. His first mission was to bomb a newly built Japanese air base, within a small island. They bombed the base to rubble, while returning home safely, resulting in a victory for the United States Air Force. At only a quarter of the way through the book, Louie has already gone through a tremendous journey, which appears will contain even more adventures as I read further. Thinking back on what I’ve read, I wanted to diagnose the reason Louie was put in a position where he was forced to fight. To do this I examined the reason that the United States was drawn into the War. I’m my opinion, which relates to most people’s, the primary reason the United States decided it was necessary to fight, was the attack in Pearl Harbor. The Japanese committed a surprise bombing attack on United States territory, which most considered a direct act of war. The Japanese destroyed American tools of war and killed American soldiers, all without any warning. The Japanese attacked the United States due to the embargo that the United States placed on the Japanese and because they needed to prevent the United States from interfering with their conquest for more territory. Despite the cause of the attack, the attack on the United States was still uncalled for and resulted in war. In APUSH this year, we learned a lot about events surrounding World War II. We discussed certain causes, enemies of the US, United States tactics, winners and losers, and outcomes that resulted from the war. This novel gives the reader an in depth look at what the life a soldier (Airman in this case) and their duties. I find it interesting, because it helps us understand how the people that carried out actions in the events we learned about, lived, and their experiences of the events we learned about. As I will continue to read Unbroken, I predict that Louie will soon be put in a tough situation. Unfortunately, I already know that his plane crashes and that he is taken as a POW, however I do not know the cause or effect of these events. I expect that he will be shot down during one of his missions and located by Japanese servicemen. Once he is taken as a POW, I predict that he won’t be broken, and that he will take the discipline that he learned from military and running training to stay strong and stay alive.

  21. Ian Rosenwasser

    Bobby Fischer Goes to War by David Edmonds and John Eidinow

    A. The book is about the Cold War chess match between world champion, Boris Spassky, and his American challenger, Bobby Fischer. The author starts the book by describing the personalities of both of the competitors. Fischer was a poor boy from Brooklyn that was raised by a single mother. He developed an obsession for chess at a young age, and he joined the Brooklyn Chess Club. When Fischer wasn’t playing chess, he was watching others play or strategizing for future games on his pocket chess game. He became the US champion before he was 15, and he went on to beat many Soviets in international tournaments. Fischer was viewed as stubborn and immature by the world. He would also ask for the most specific playing conditions, lighting with the right angle off the board, exact sizes of all the pieces, and no distractions from the crowd. While most chess players walked around while their opponent was making a move, Fischer stayed at the table and strategized until it was his turn again. Also, when he lost, Fischer would commonly break out into tears because he couldn’t physiologically handle the concept of losing. All the adjustments and tantrums of Fischer often made the opponent mentally fatigued. The author also describes the upbringing of Boris Spassky. Similar to Fischer, Spassky was poor and raised by a single mother. He was taught to play chess by many philosophical Soviet grandmasters. Chess in the USSR was an important sport, thus Spassky was treated as a celebrity, while Fischer wasn’t as popular in America. Spassky eventually became world champion, but he had a tough road to becoming the best. He was always regarded as a prodigy, but he slipped a couple of times by going on losing streaks. When Spassky and Fischer were both top players, they revealed political views that weren’t popular. Fischer stated that he was anti-Semite towards Jews, which was ironic because he was Jewish. Spassky was a Russian nationalist that felt that the USSR’s communist rules didn’t apply to him. Spassky’s high status as Soviet grandmaster helped him get away with such comments, but he was constantly followed by KGB agents.

    B. The chess match took place during the middle of the Cold War. There were many proxy wars going on between the US and Soviets, as the US had just fought in Vietnam, and the Soviets were going into Afghanistan. During the year of the chess match, Nixon was caught in the Watergate scandal. Also, he created a period of détente between the US and USSR. Although there was a break in the fight, the ideological struggle continued between both countries. The background for the chess championship was ironic because neither of the contenders felt strong pride to their country, or hatred towards the other’s country.

    C. The development of the whole chess match takes place from the 1950’s to 1972. In APUSH we studied presidents Eisenhower, JFK, LBJ, and Nixon during this time period. Ike won the Korean War, while the other 3 struggled through the Vietnam War. JFK sent some troops to Vietnam, LBJ continued the fight, and Nixon eventually pulled out American troops. The war was an effort to contain communism in Asia during the Cold War. We also learned about the domestic policy of the presidents. There was an increase of consumer culture during Eisenhower, JFK got the first people to land on the moon, and LBJ started the Great Society. Lastly, we learned about the strong foreign policy of Nixon, and his grave mistakes during Watergate.

    D. I think that leading up to the championship chess match, Fischer and Spassky will say many outrageous political comments because they are both very naïve about the Cold War. The comments will lead to intelligence agencies from both countries investigating each contender. Also, I think that whichever country loses the match will create many conspiracies to the other country cheating in some way.

  22. Donavin Stoops

    a) The book I am currently reading is The Help by Kathryn Stockett. The novel is in Jackson, Mississippi in the year 1960, meaning it is very segregated. The novel starts by Aibileen, an African American maid working in a white family’s home, giving us insight on her life. She works for 8 hours a day and 6 days a week with very minimal pay. She essentially raises the couple’s baby, as she has done before. She also had a son who died 3 years ago at work, the police blamed it an accident even though it could have been on purpose by his white bosses. We then get introduced to another maid named Minny, a friends of Aibileen. Minny worked for an elderly lady for many years until her daughter put her into an elderly home and then fired Minny. After she was fired, the daughter who fired her, Miss Hilly, lied by saying she stole silverware and therefore no one in town would hire her. That’s when she gets hired by Celia Foote, a women out in the country who married very rich. Celia doesn’t have to many friends in town, mainly because she stole Miss Hilly’s boyfriend, her now husband, and so many people don’t talk to her. The last main character introduced is Eugenia Phelan, AKA Skeeter. She is different than the others as she went to college and is pursuing a career in writing. She used to have a maid working for her, known as Constantine, but she disappeared and her mother won’t say why. She is now trying to write a book about stories from the help (what they call the servants), and is seeking help from Aibileen.

    b) The first portion of The Help that I’ve read could be connected to contextualization. This is because throughout the first portion of the novel, there was many times when the characters talked about what was happening in the nation. For example, one time Miss Leefolt and her other white friends were having a bridge party, when they started talking about things in the nation happening. They talked about the bus boycotts, the bus rides where protesters rode, and sit-ins. They also talked about President Kennedy and his push for Civil Rights for African Americans. This gave us insight on what was happening in the country and gave us insight as to how some African Americans were fighting back against oppression.

    c) This connects to APUSH in the Civil Rights Movement unit we learned about in the first trimester. Like I said in part b, the author talked a lot about the events going on in that time period like bus boycotts and President Kennedy. They also spoke heavily on Jim Crow Laws, specifically how Miss Hilly pressured Miss Skeeter into building a new bathroom in their garage just so the help wouldn’t use their bathroom. Also, Miss Hilly was trying to pass a law through the State Government to make it so any white family who has help, has to build a separate bathroom for them. This is essentially the extension of Jim Crow laws into the households.

    d) This novel has been excellent so far, and I know it is going to get better based on where I left off. I can predict a few things that may happen in the near future in my book. Firstly, I predict that Mr Foote is going to find out that his wife hired a cleaning lady, however I do not think he will be as mad as Minny and Miss Foote think he is going to be. I can also predict that Aibileen and Miss Skeeter are going to write their book and be a big hit. What else may happen is people like the KKK will find out and hurt either of them in some way. The last thing I am going to predict is that Miss Leefolt is going to hurt her daughter, Mae Mobley, in some way because she keeps on “annoying her” (even though she is only 2-3 years old).

  23. Paige MacDonald

    Book: Fever, 1793
    a. A girl named Matilda is awoken in a small apartment in Philadelphia. She gets out of bed and observes her city in 1793. Her serving girl is late because she is with her boyfriend. She keeps remembering Pierre Blanchard’s hot air balloon. She goes downstairs and reminds the readers that she lives in a coffeehouse, so her kitchen is quite big. The coffeehouse is full of merchants and politicians. Matilda gives a short background about a free black cook that bought her freedom. Matilda goes to water the plants, which are droopy because the city is in a drought. Then, her mother returns to tell Matilda that Polly is dead. She explains that she had a fever and the man across the street does too. Later, men in the coffeehouse were talking about the fever, saying it was caused by coffee beans, but a doctor nearby says it was fellow fever that could affect everyone. Matilda’s mother makes sure to make a point about the refugees bringing the fever with them. A week later, the death toll is 64. Matilda goes to the store and is told the fever is a punishment for people who don’t go to church. She then sees her crush, Nathaniel Benson who asks her on a fishing date. Anyways, later the family sits at lunch and talk about business. Matilda suggests opening another coffeehouse, but she’s shut down when her mother says the increase in business is only due to the fear of the fever. Then, Matilda gets ready to meet a potential husband. A bias in this book is people’s hatred for refugees. They all think they brought the fever that is killing people.
    b. 1793 was a time of happiness after the Revolution. A few years before, the first president of the Unites States was elected, George Washington. The Bill of Rights was imposed, which made sure Anti-Federalists would support the Constitution, and allowed rights for most citizens. Hamilton and Jefferson had battles in office, while the French Revolution impacted America. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions took place and the overarching problem was the power of the government.
    c. This book can relate to a different time in US history, which is when colonists first came to America. The phenomenon called the Columbian Exchange occurred, where the old world and the new world exchanged goods and diseases. Almost 90% of Native Americans died because of this exchange, because of disease. Colonists were immune to many diseases they brought over, but they were new to Indian’s, so many died from these epidemics. All the Indians did not know what was coming, and neither did the people living in Philadelphia in 1793.
    d. I think soon, some of Matilda’s relatives will get sick, such as her mother or grandfather. I don’t think she will get sick because she is the main character. She might move away with, for example, her grandfather. Even though he is against the idea right now, he might get used to the idea of moving away from the disease-ridden city.

  24. Emma Marszalek

    a.Orphan Train is a novel by Christina Baker Kline about a seventeen-year-old, Molly Ayer, who has to do community service hours because she tried to steal a book from a library. Molly is an orphan, and she lives with Ralph and Dina, her foster parents. Molly hears her foster parents talking about her, and she is worried that she may not be in this home much longer. Jack, Molly’s boyfriend, finds a job for Molly to gain her service hours. Jack found this job because it is at the place where his mother works. Vivian, a ninety-year-old women, needs somebody to help her clean attic. Little does Molly know, her and Vivian have a lot in common. Vivian is also a orphan, and has a long story of where she got to where she is now. There are two time period and two different sides to this book. Molly’s father died, and her mother is unable to take care of her. This side of the story takes place in Spruce Harbor, Maine, 2011. The other side is Vivian’s. She is originally from west coast of Ireland, but moved to New York City in 1929 to try and have a better life. Life was hard in Ireland, but to their surprise so was life in America. Vivian lived with her parents, two brothers, and baby sister. While living in their apartment, it caught fire. Vivian was the only one to make it out alive. Then, she is picked up by Children’s Aid, and taken on a train to find a new home. On the train she is given Carmine to take care of. Along the way she also meets Hans(Dutchy). She creates a bond with Carmine and Dutchy. When they get their destination, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, they are lined up and picked. Families that are looking for a kid come and pick the kid of their choice. Dutchy and Carmine get picked on this stop, but Vivian has other chances to be picked up by somebody.

    b.Since there are two time periods for my book, I can look at change and continuity over time. The two time periods are 1929 and 2011. I will be looking the change and continuity of orphans. In 1929, there was a orphan train that took orphan children to cities. If a child was taken by a parent, there was a trail time. If the family didn’t like the child, they could send them back. While 2011, orphans are placed in foster homes. This sometimes included lots of other children of all different ages or there could be no other children at all. The foster parents could decide if the kid could stay in their care or not. These time periods are similar because orphans were being picked, and the kid may have no say at all. Based on the novel, I know that the orphans felt alone, and like they didn’t have somebody to talk to sometimes. There was change and continuity in throughout the time periods, 1929 and 2011.

    c.Parts of this novel can be related to what we have learned in apush. Vivian’s family was apart of a wave of immigration to the United States of America. They came to America for a fresh start. They wanted to have a plenty of land, and be able to support themselves. This directly relates to what we are doing in apush because we learned about the waves of immigration and why they happened. Many families wanted to escape being poor and unstable. Ireland was recovering from a potato famine in the 1850s. They was lots of poverty and disease in Ireland during the 20th century; therefore, lots of the Irish came to America. In the novel, Orphan Train, there a subjects that directly relate to what I have learned in apush.

    d.There are many ways that this novel could go. Regarding Vivian, I think that she will be adopted, and not like where she is. I believe that she will be unhappy wherever she is because she will not be Dutchy or Carmine. I feel that she may not see Carmine again, but Dutchy may find her one day. I also think that Vivian will help her realize that she has a bad attitude. As for Molly,I think that she will learn a lot from Vivian, and have a special connection with her that will last forever. I have sympathy for both, Vivian and Molly. I don’t know what it is like to be in either of the situations, but I can feel for them. This sympathy makes me have more of a connection with the characters.

  25. Alex Hidalgo

    a. The first quarter of the book United States of Jihad by Peter Bergen mainly focuses on American grown terrorism. Bergen cites an ample number of examples of Americans from all backgrounds, who for their own reasons join terrorist organizations. The main two organizations that are talked about are ISIS and Al-Qaeda. The weird thing about these people who join terrorist organizations is that when pooled together and compared to the rest of America, they seem very normal. They are as well-educated and emotionally stable as the typical American citizen yet for some reason they made the choice to turn to terrorism. Bergen attempts to tackle the question of why these Americans joined terrorist groups, and he makes some interesting points about why people drop everything and join these organizations in the first place. His main contention is that people like to be a part of something that is bigger than them. An example is given of a man named Zachary Chesser, an American turned militant Islamist from Virginia. Chesser was quoted as saying that he took great pleasure in the “enormous influence” that he wielded by turning to militancy. Chesser, and many others like him wanted a place where they could belong and play out their heroic fantasies. They sold themselves on the idea that they were fighting a holy war and that they had Allah on their side. I think that Bergen is an unbiased writer who informs the reader about the subjects at hand. Bergen goes into detail about terrorism and Islamic extremists, but he made it a point to include voices from Muslims who love the U.S. and are opposed to terrorists to show that there are two sides to this. Overall, I think that Bergen did a fantastic job at showing the mindsets of people who take the plunge into terrorist organizations. He also did a good job at portraying the unpredictability of the matter, with Americans from all aspects of life being turned into terrorists.

    b. I think that radical terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al Qaeda can be compared to the Nazi party that was prevalent in the 1920s-1940s. Both ISIS and the Nazi party were fast-growing, authoritarian forces that were willing to murder any person who dared defy them. ISIS uses brutal methods such as beheadings and throwing men off buildings to impose their ideology. The Nazis also used brutal methods to enforce their ideologies on people such as gassing with carbon monoxide or Zyklon B and sentencing to death by firing squads. ISIS and the Nazis also both make use of propaganda to spread their ideals. The Nazis used posters, books (such as Mein Kampf), daily newspapers, and propaganda agencies to accomplish this. ISIS uses social media and extremely graphic videos to do the same. Lastly, both ISIS and the Nazi party endangered the civilization that they were a part of and had to have military force brought upon them to attempt to end their cause.

    c. My reading of United States of Jihad connects to APUSH because of the implications that terrorism and terrorist groups had on American history, specifically the 1990s-2000s. America has been dealing with the issue of Islamic terrorism for many years now, with one of the first mainland attacks in America coming with the bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993. This attack would lay the groundwork for many other terrorist scares and attacks that would occur in the following years. In APUSH we’re just breaching into the 2000s by looking at the election of 2000 where George Bush faced off against Al Gore. Just around 10 months after this election concluded, the world trade center was attacked for a second time, except this attack was of a completely different magnitude. You often hear people say that the world was never the same after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, and I think that this has a lot of merit to it. The 9/11 terrorist attacks directly led to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), USA Patriot Act, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and a growing resentment from the public of Muslims everywhere. As a result of 9/11 and terrorism seeming as an imminent threat to American security, George Bush launched the war on terror. This war has waged on for over 15 years and shaped American policy in the 21st century. With Donald Trump elected to office earlier this year, the war on terror will go on as he vowed that the fight against ISIL is his number one priority. In summary, terrorist attacks and organizations continue to influence America and have contributed to countless changes taking place. Whether you’re held up at the airport at a security checkpoint, or frankly even if you live in the United States, then you too have been effected by terrorism. In my opinion, nothing in the 21st century has had a greater impact on America then terrorism, and for that reason the connection to APUSH is completely undeniable.

    d. My prediction for the fate of ISIS and Al-Qaeda is that they will continue to produce fighters against the western world. Even in the extremely unlikely scenario that both groups are destroyed, the influence that they had over millions of people that lived under their law will certainly contribute to other spinoff terrorist groups. Children living under ISIS or Al-Qaeda rule have grown up around propaganda and urban warfare, so it can be expected that a steady stream of terrorist fighters will continue to be produced. The regimes of ISIS and Al-Qaeda will not soon be forgotten as America will have to deal with the effects of terrorism for a very long time.

  26. Kate Marszalek

    By Laura Hillenbrand

    a) By reading Unbroken, I have split up my book into about 100 pages per assignment. So
    far, the main character Louie Zamperini, starts off as a troubled boy in the streets of New York. But after a bad case of pneumonia, the Zamperini’s decide to move to Torrance, California. There Louie and his perfect picture brother, Pete, find themselves getting into boyish activities of stealing and fistfights. As a ruthless boy, Louie never thought to participate in school sports, as he already made sports of his own. After long encouragement by Pete, Louie found his ability to run like the wind. Joining the high school track team, Louie, as a mile runner, quickly beat local records. After competing in state championships and winning by a giant amount, Louie had his sights set on the Olympics in Germany.
    Flying through the Olympic trials, Louie was on his way to compete against the fastest runners in the world. As a young novice, Louie knew that his chances in the Olympics were low, as runners peak in their mid-20s. Nevertheless, Louie was determined to beat the competition. At the Olympics, Louie competed in the 5,000 unlike the usual mile he competed with in high school. But after a long trip filled with heat and food, Louie was not at his top performance and lacked the stamina to run in the top pack at the Olympics. Throughout the race, Louie lagged, but as the last lap came up, Louie gave all that he had and ran the fastest lap ever. Ending in seventh was not important, as people were amazed at the speed and determination that Louie put into his last lap.
    Returning home from Germany, Louie did not stop his dreams for the Olympics, but instead started to train for the Olympics coming up in Japan. Louie’s dream was cut short as America entered World War II. First, enlisting in the Air Force, Louie entered the armed forces voluntarily. Quickly, though, Louie realized that he did not enjoy flying as much as he thought he did, and he signed a form to return home. Little to his knowledge, Louie agreed to reenter the Air Force if he got drafted, which he did. Grueling training filled weeks for Louie as he was prepared to enter the war. Along the way, he met his B-24 team, along with the death trap of a plane that they were ordered to fly through the air. Deaths, climbed at an alarming rate as Louie and Phil, his pilot, saw their companions there one day and gone the next. Deployed at Oahu, Louie and his team named their bomber plane, “Super Man”. And so their adventure continues with adrenaline provoking attacks on Japan bases, struggles to keep their ragged plane in the air, and a fearless battle at Nauru where Super Man returned with five hundred and ninety-four holes.
    b) Not fully mentioned in this novel is the buildup to World War II. As Louie is competing
    for a spot in the Olympics, America is struggling to stay isolated from European affairs as Germany begins to break the Treaty of Versailles. Tensions are rising as Hitler wins the election in Germany and the Nazi’s start to take power. Leftover resentments from the blame of World War I, cause Germany to invade Poland and begin to break the treaty by building up arms. Along with tensions against Germany, Japan begins to build up their forces for the prospect of the World War, and decide to declare war with the U.S. with the bombing of Pearl Harbor, a navy base located in Hawaii. This attack, launched the U.S. into World War II, and lead to Louie Zamperini being drafted into the Air Force.
    c) An obvious connection to something that we have learned in APUSH, is World War II.
    We mainly focused on the aftermath of the war in the decades’ after and how it affected the society that we see today. In class, we learned the basics of the war from an American standpoint as we rushed to aid our allies. But this novel goes deeper into such thinking, by giving the reader a personal story to immerse themselves in. As we continued our discussions in class, we talked about the motives behind Germany and Japan, which are outlined in a personal experience as Louie travels to Germany for the Olympics.
    d) As I continue to read this book, I expect Louie to be involved in a crash in “Super Man”.
    From previous knowledge, I know that Louie become a POW, but I do not know how that exactly happens. I predict that Louie and his team will be on a bombing mission, and they unexpectedly get hit by a Japanese plane. I expect for some of the crew to die in the crash, but for Louie and Phil to survive and be taken as prisoners. For the escape, I predict that the Air Force, searches for Louie and Phil and plans a raid of the Japanese base that they are held at.

  27. Lindsey Nedd

    I’m reading “The President is a Sick Man” by Matthew Algeo, it is based on President Grover Cleveland. The book starts when he is about to be sworn in for the second time, however, his was not elected as president two consecutive times in a row. The day of his inauguration was a cold rainy day, there was even snow; due to these weather conditions Grover Cleveland’s second inauguration is recorded as the least attended in history. President William Harrison gave his two hour inaugural address in similar weather without wearing a coat, he sadly only lived a month into his presidency because he got sick from the rain. The financial crisis of 1893 was another reason why a large amount of Americans did not participate in inauguration festivities for Grover Cleveland, people were so worried they just didn’t feel like celebrating. 1893 was the worst time for the American economy up until the depression in the 1930s when the stock market crashed. The situation the Grover Cleveland is put in once he enters office for the second time reminds me of how President Barack Obama had to go into his first term of his presidency and try to fix the effects of the recession of 2008. President Grover Cleveland’s plan to get the American economy back on track was to switch America back to the gold standard which based America’s currency off of gold rather than silver; legally gold was sixteen times more valuable than silver. However, at this time American are not carrying around coins, they have paper money that represent a certain amount of gold or silver. The Silver Purchase Act required that the United States government buy a minimum of 4.5 million ounces of silver every month, President Grover Cleveland believed this was a major cause of the poor economy, he also believed that this act drained gold reserves, and he thought it threatened the people’s faith in the American economy. On the back cover of the book the author gives the main story line which is the fact that President Grover Cleveland went on his friend’s yacht and was not heard from for five days; apparently the president had some kind of life threatening condition and had a secret medical procedure that nobody knew anything about, it is an unknown chapter in American history. I don’t believe there is any bias shown in what I have read so far from this book by Matthew Algeo, he is simply stating facts and the unknown there are no personal or political views present so far.I think this book will end up uncovering the secrets about President Grover Cleveland’s medical history, and what he was truly doing on that yacht along with the “doctors” who ended up saving his life and his presidency.

  28. Josh Myers

    a. I am reading “No Place to Hide” by Glenn Greenwald. This takes place in May of 2013 when Edward Snowden reached out to Glenn Greenwald as an anonymous source to disclose information about government surveillance. Greenwald, a reporter for The Guardian Newspaper, was contacted by an anonymous source that claimed to have shocking information about NSA surveillance. Snowden required Greenwald to install many security measures to ensure that he would not be compromised. This included a PGP encryption software that creates complicated encryption codes that take many years to decipher. Greenwald was then reached out by a documentary film-maker named Laura Poitras. She revealed to him that she was receiving similar e-mails from somebody that claimed to have access to incriminating documents about the US government spying on its citizens and the rest of the world. Greenwald soon installed the PGP encryption software on his computer when he was confident that the source was being truthful. After some time, Laura and Glenn had plans to meet up with the source at a hotel in Hong Kong. Laura had already received a flash drive containing hundreds of documents from the source. On the place to Hong Kong, Greenwald spent his time reading all of these documents. The source gave some information, stating that his name was Edward Snowden and that he was a former senior advisor of the NSA. Glenn and Laura were both given specific information about where to meet Snowden. Snowden was very concerned about security and getting caught before he was able to release the documents. They were ordered to go to the third floor of the hotel and ask an employee if a restaurant was open. This was to inform Snowden that they had not been followed. Then they were supposed to go to a room with “a giant alligator” at 10:00. If Snowden failed to arrive within two minutes, which he had, they were supposed to come back at 10:20. They would know that they were meeting the correct person because they would be holding a Rubik’s Cube. At 10:20 Snowden had walked into the room and they all walked to his hotel room. Laura, who was making a documentary about the NSA, filmed a five-hour interview between Greenwald and Snowden. Snowden revealed that he was determined to leak the documents because he would not have been able to live with himself if he had done nothing.
    b. The terrorist attacks on September 11th 2001 had a very strong influence in the way that the government had chosen to survey the world. The increased tensions and the rise of the internet had led the government to use to internet to track people. The Bush Administration had wanted to keep Americans safe, but they claimed that the NSA was not spying on the public. Many, Snowden included, had expected the Obama Administration to improve this, however they had only cracked down harder on whistleblowers. The Obama Administration had prosecuted more whistleblowers that all of the past administrations combined. This had eventually led Snowden to leak the documents.
    c. This connects with the paranoia that resulted during World War One. During World War One, President Wilson had adopted the Espionage Act that had allowed him to penalize dissent against the war. The punishments were severe and could include life in prison or the death sentence. This was the same law that the Obama Administration had used to punish the whistleblowers. The Espionage Act of 1917 allowed anyone that had leaked government information, like Snowden, to be severely punished.
    d. I know that the documents will soon be leaked to the public through WikiLeaks. Because this story is recent, I know the basics of what is going to happen. Snowden will choose to leak the documents and he will not return to the United States where he would be arrested. Snowden had also let “digital footprints” because he wanted the leaks to be tracked to him so no innocent people were charged. The documents that were leaked by Snowden will forever change the way that the American people view the government.

  29. Markus Butkovich

    Band of Brothers is a non-fictional book by author Stephen E. Ambrose about the 506th regiment during World War II. The book takes the group of soldiers through a series of events while America was fighting in the war in Europe. The soldiers were part of a group that were specifically paratroopers. This is explained in the first part of the book. It starts by telling us how the troop got through the war, and then disbanded. And while you have this in your mind, Ambrose tells you about how the regiment became brothers. The regiment all met at camp, as they would in times of war. They came from different backgrounds and spots around the country, such as poor people, who many of them were since they grew up in the depression, and it still left an aftermath mark on them. Some came from wealthy ivy league schools, such as Harvard, and some came from the deep south. Wherever it was they came from, they all watched out for each other. At the time, a new system had been implemented into the military for soldiers. You could volunteer to become a paratrooper, and jump out of planes during the battles. This was a new tactic for World War II. Specific soldiers had an interest for this, though it was an extreme situation to be in. The soldiers saw holes in this that they really thought could be seen as advantages; the soldiers got paid a hundred dollars a week versus the standard fifty, but the soldiers really thought of it as an attitude adjustment. They figured since they were in the war anyway, you have to have a good attitude, and be enthusiastic about it. Most soldiers that would be enthusiastic would have each others backs, versus the other soldiers who were just dreading being there. So the 506th regiment was formed, with enthusiasm troops that went through the works of war together. This book really connects to the type of things we learn in APUSH because it is so specific. It is a novel about World War II, and brings up the terror and realization of war. It tells the tragic and bloody tale of World War II, but more importantly the story of the soldiers. In APUSH, we look at articles in class from certain historical figures. It shows us the specificness of the event or time period that is happening, but doesn’t give the overall broad range look of the event. The specific thing that the book teaches is about all the troops, and a look at just one of the views on them and their personal relationships, putting everything into perspective. This book perfectly connects to the outsideness of World War II that we learned in APUSH. It doesn’t linearly talk about the events of World War II, but how outside events have affected the soldiers, and the journey that the soldiers took to get there. As an example, the great depression had affected all of the soldiers in one way or another, and they all came from different places in the country, which connects all the way back to the politics at the time, and what parts of the country supported which major party. Band of Brothers will go on to the war in Europe. Since our troops start out, training, becoming brothers, they will now actually ship overseas. I also predict that there will be major developments in what happens to some of the soldiers, and character within them will change.

  30. Gabe Liss

    A. Summary

    I am reading “The Astonishing Life of Octavian Nothing, Traitor to the Nation- Volume 1: The Pox Party” by MT Anderson. This book is split into four main parts, so I will be talking about the first part in this blog. The first part starts out by introducing us to the main characters, Octavian, and his mother Cassiopeia. Octavian and his mother are slaves at a house in Boston called “The College”, where many scientists, philosophers, musicians, and other slaves live. This takes place in the time period before the Revolution, so Octavian notices soldiers walking around, and he constantly hears the phrase, “Taxation without Representation.” However, Octavian does not know he is a slave, as he and his mother are treated very differently from the other slaves. Octavian’s master, Mr. Gitney, believes African Americans can be as smart as whites if they are taught the right way, so Mr. Gitney acts as Octavian’s teacher and teaches him to be “observant.” There are many unnatural experiments to strengthen and study Octavian, such as poisoning his dog, dropping a cat from a high distance, and even weighing Octavian’s own poop. Octavian is pretty much free around the house, except he is forbidden to go through a certain door. One day out of curiosity, Octavian goes through the door and finds graphs and charts and pictures of himself and his mother, and he learns that his mother was captured from Africa when she was pregnant with Octavian at 14 years old, and this brought him to realize that he and his mother are slaves. This angers Octavian greatly, but there isn’t anything he can do about it. Lord Cheldthrope is the biggest donor that fund the College to keep it running smoothly. He suddenly dies, and his nephew, also named Lord Cheldthrope, visits the College. He is immediately entranced by Cassiopeia, and wants to camp with her in the woods. Mr. Gitney wants her to go and flirt with Cheldthrope because the College desperately needs the funding. Lord Cheldthrope loves Cassiopeia so much that he wants her to join him in England. Partly because of Octavian, Cassiopeia declines the offer which deeply anger Lord Cheldthrope. Lord Cheldthrope leaves the College, cutting off its only hope of funding. The first section concludes explaining how the College must sell some equipment for the first time. Things at the College are changing.

    B. Change and Continuity

    Throughout the first part of the book, Octavian’s knowledge about his importance changes. At first, Octavian thinks he is the most important person in the house, but after learning about his mother’s history and their status, Octavian learns that he is a slave which makes him upset. The security of the college also changes throughout the first section. At first, the college is well funded and secure, but after Lord Cheldthrope dies, the College is no longer funded and must sell some equipment for the first time. Octavian’s learning stays the same throughout the first section. Octavian is always learning to be observant and stoic, and his teachings never stop or falter. Octavian and Cassiopeia remain very close throughout the first part. They love each other a lot, and they always stick by and support each other.

    C. Connection

    This book takes place before the revolution occurred, so Octavian notices many things that we learned about in class. Octavian constantly hears the phrase “Taxation without Representation”, and although he doesn’t know what this means, we learned that the colonists were upset that they got taxed by the British without a say. Octavian also witnessed a man get tarred and feathered. We learned that angry Patriots often tarred and feathered tax collectors, as a way of rebelling and showing their hatred to the British. Octavian also describes hearing about Manifest Destiny. We learned in class that this was the mindset Americans had that all of America was given to them by God, and they wanted to move west and conquer more land from the Indians. Lastly, Octavian and Cassiopeia are slaves, and we covered slavery extensively in class about what a horror it was to society.

    D. Prediction

    I predict that the College will sell Cassiopeia to get some money. The College needed money or else it would fall apart, and selling a beautiful African princess like Cassiopeia could make some good money. I predict Octavian will be devastated by this, and he will begin to hate the College and maybe even try to escape. So far, I would give this book a C, because although the concept is interesting and different, it is kind of hard to follow and is a little bit confusing. I cannot relate to the book at all, as I have never experienced slavery, and my school is much more normal than Octavian’s teachings.

  31. Nico Jones

    No Place to Hide, by Glenn Greenwald
    a. During this first section of my novel Greenwald expressed his beliefs and vividly recounted his first few interactions with Edward Snowden, who had initially contacted him by the name of Cincinnatus. This false name referred to Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who was a Roman farmer who became the dictator of Rome in order to protect the city from an attack. Initially when Snowden contacted Greenwald, the journalist blew him off repeatedly, as he was known for working on too many cases of government oversteps into the public’s privacy. Greenwald did not know of any of the information that Snowden was signalling to had any merit, therefore his plea for a story went to the back of Greenwald’s long list of things to do. He couldn’t possibly know that he was close to uncovering the largest and most significant national security leak in US history. With the help of a documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras, Greenwald was summoned repeated to secret meetings that made the journalist begin to believe Cincinnatus had a real story. Snowden’s first goal from establishing contact with Greenwald was to spark a global debate about internet security, privacy, and the dangers of state surveillance. Glenn Greenwald made the point that privacy was a major factor in the creation of America, because of the colonist’s view of the British “illegitimately” making countess searches based on reasonable doubt without warrants. Which lead to the Fourth Amendment that protects citizens from unreasonable search and seizures. However, now in this day in age of paranoia and exaggeration of potential terrorist attacks the US has put in place mass surveillance of its citizens it had once promised to give privacy to. These programs include one called PRISM that allowed the NSA to collect private information from large internet companies like Google, Facebook, and Skype. Greenwald expressed his bias through these beliefs he has on mass surveillance. Mass surveillance has an extensive of history turning citizens who are aware of the watching into more compliant and fearful ones. Greenwald refers to the use of mass surveillance as a way for governments to pursue their motive of of suppressing dissent and mandating compliance from its citizens.

    b.The effects of the contact between Greenwald and Snowden were countless because of the reactions the US government had towards the releasing of numerous accounts of how the government spied on its people without warrant. This explosive abuse of power struck a strong chord with the public as this release of sensitive information rekindled the feeling of anger and distrust towards the government. Because of Snowden’s bravery and his belief that everyone should know what the American government was doing behind the people’s backs. During this section I read the effects of the actions Greenwald and Snowden took during the beginning of this novel were not explained, but as the story continues to unveil itself the depth of the info released will be revealed.

    c. What I read during this segment, we did not completely cover in class. We discussed how during times of war or when we on the verge of it, civil liberties are often limited in order to put national security first. America saw this once again after 9/11 (which is also a topic we discussed in class this week), the US began to disregard individuals privacy for their War on Terror. Our class is currently learning about the events that followed 9/11. We learned the effects that preceded the attacks lead to a stepping up in security and a more active government and how our entire country social values changed to become more centered on security and the fight on terror.

    d. The novel will continue to reveal details of what led up to Snowden blowing the whistle on the abuses that the NSA had committed against the very people it had been sworn to protect. Glenn Greenwald will slowly begin to understand the multiple and the depth of Snowden’s revelations will rock the US forever. Greenwald will have to jump through many hoops and obstacles to report this leak because of the danger it poses to all of the characters in this novel. I think that the US government will find out that Greenwald was working with Snowden and will try to arrest him to stop the release of documents that could jeopardize all of the US’ insight into millions of American citizen’s lives.

  32. Nicholas Capinjola

    A) After reading the first couple chapters on The Money Men by H.W Brands there was a constant theme of how money truly made the world go round. The main subjects in the first couple chapters talk about Hamilton and his idea of a National Bank. Brands describes hamilton as a revolutionary in the world of finance, being ahead of his time. Brands also writes about the struggles Hamilton faced when trying to create the first National bank and what it led too. The author then goes into the classic federalists vs. Democratic republican debates. On one side was Thomas Jefferson with his ideas about small, state based government, and on the other side was Hamilton with a more powerful national government. Included with this was the National bank which the democratic republicans highly disliked. The battle between state banks and a national bank was a strong theme in the first section.

    B) To connect it to periodization, it was not long after America gained its independence and many people were scared of a over-ruling government forming again. This was a main turning point in history because people were very “on edge” about strong central governments forming. This is why Hamilton had such a hard time with the bank, because a strong central government was a fear of many of the american people. At this time people like Thomas Jefferson, the leader of the democratic republicans, were aligned with a more powerful state government. In this system the states had more power and held their own banks, unlike Hamilton’s National bank idea.

    C) This Book connects perfectly with what we learned about Federalists vs. Democratic republicans in APUSH. This was one of the turning points in political history because unlike what President Washington wanted, there were 2 main and very different political parties. As we learned, President Washington warned against the formation of political parties in America’s political future. Along with this we also learned about the difference between a federalist and a Democratic republican. The federalist believed in closer ties with Great Britain while democratic republicans wanted to further themselves from G.B. Federalist’s main goal was to build a strong central government, while Democratic republicans wanted to stay away from another central government and spread the power evenly to the states.

    D) I predict that my book will start to enter the realm of the industrial revolution and the economic advancements made in that time. I also think it will go into economic depressions and recessions throughout history. I would give this book an A and highly recommend it to anyone interesting in economics and the history of successful and influential men in the world of money. I am very interested in money and economics, which is most likely why i am enjoying learning about the history of capitalist’s and economists. I enjoy learning about their struggles, like Hamilton and his national Bank, and their successes. The Money Men is a highly recommended read for anyone who is interested in the history of economics in America.

  33. Ian Birley

    A. I am reading Argo by Antonio Mendez. The first quarter of this book spends its time contextualizing Iran’s relationship with the U.S for the 50 years leading up to the hostage crisis. It talks about how the U.S became involved with Iran once it became worried that the nation would nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) along with other fears that the Soviet Union would puppet it for a warm water port off the Persian Gulf. It goes into much depth about how the U.S had installed its own puppet Shah in Iran to preserve American interests. However, this was met with backlash by many Iranian citizens. Due to the high Muslim population in the country, a secular government such as the shah was essentially impossible. Several groups of Iranian nationalist militants would make gangs that would actively challenge the authority of the Iranian government. While this may have been happening, the U.S government was still confident that the puppet state would use its full military power to guarantee its legitimacy. So, it came as a shock when, in 1979, a group of Iranian militants had taken American hostages in the U.S embassy in Iran. The thought process of the militants was that if the Iranian government had taken immediate action to save these Americans, then that would be proof of its puppetry to the West. President Carter and other foreign officials now had a difficult puzzle that needed to be dealt with rapidly.
    B. To contextualize, these events take place over the span of the Cold War between the U.S and the Soviet Union. Many actions taken, which may seem rash now due to hindsight, should be understood in this context. For example, in the 1950s the U.S had engaged in a countercoup in Iran which would install a secular government under the shah. This may seem like a questionable decision if that was all the context one receives. During this time, the U.S had just stalemated the Korean War, a war to prevent further Soviet influence in Asia. The Eisenhower administration was now worried that the USSR would try to pull the same trick with Iran. So, the U.S beat them to it, and got the bonus of some cheap crude oil along the way.
    C. This book directly relates to the stain on Jimmy Carter’s presidency that is the Iranian hostage crisis. While he hadn’t done anything remarkable before, this had really shown Carter’s true colors as an unremarkable leader. This crisis was so poorly handled in the eyes of so many Americans, that Carter had essentially no chance at winning reelection.
    D. I think from here, the book is going to go in depth about all of the discussion, planning, and blunders that had gone into getting these hostages out of Iran. It will eventually result in the creation of a fake movie in order for a group of undercover agents to gain access to the country. That’s just because I already have a general idea of what this book is about.

  34. Lindsay Merline

    1. The book I am currently reading is “The Help” by Kathryn Stockett. So far, I’ve read chapters 1-8. The book takes place in Jackson, Mississippi, and begins in the year 1962. The book has 3 different female narrators. The first introduced is Aibileen. She’s a maid and she takes care of the white children, specifically the Leefolt’s. Many other characters are introduced, such as Hilly. Hilly gives insight into her clear racism because she would prefer it if white people built bathrooms outside for blacks to use. Minny, Miss Walter’s maid (another friend of Elizabeth Leefolt), is accused of stealing. Minny ends up losing her job. Minny struggles to find a job. Minny is also a narrator in the book, and she has a huge attitude. She is an amazing cook and everyone knows. Celia hires Minny as her maid, but the catch is that Celia’s husband would not know they have a maid, and Celia would take the credit for all the cooking and cleaning. Minny attempts to understand Celia, and teach her how to cook, but it seems hopeless. Skeeter, the last narrator, is introduced by explaining her and Hilly’s life-long friendship. One of her dreams is to become a writer. Skeeter was raised by her maid, Constantine, and she misses her greatly. Her mother tells her Constantine is gone, and won’t tell her where she has gone. Skeeter goes to a newspaper company for a job interview, where she is granted the ability to write in a column. Skeeter is told that none of her writing ideas are good, but then one hits her, although she feels like i could cross the line. Aibileen and Mae Mobley, Elizabeth Leefolt’s child, show to have a continuously growing bond. Skeeter has the idea of interviewing maids and asking about what their experiences were like working. Aibileen feels as though this is a dangerous and bad idea.

    2. The stormy sixties were occurring during this time period. Kennedy was president, and his new frontier campaign was all the rage. Revitalizing the economy was a major theme during Kennedy’s administration and during the ‘60s. On top of all this, American foreign affairs was a highlight. The ideals of communism were frightening Americans left and right. On top of that, the civil rights movement was occurring. From the freedom riders to the March on Washington, African Americans fighting for equality was at an all-time high, and their voices were to be heard.

    3. In APUSH, we discussed a lot about civil rights during the 60’s. White’s still felt ultimately superior to blacks, and black maids were common. In the novel, certain characters express their clear feeling of superiority along with their apparent racism by explaining how blacks should have separate bathrooms from whites. All enforced segregation such as that, put loosely, was ended by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. However, the beginning of the book takes place in the summer of 1962, where segregation was still permitted by law and ignited the feeling of superiority among whites.
    4. I predict different outcomes for all the ladies. I believe Aibileen will not agree to the interview with Skeeter, seeing as she personally feels it is incorrect to do as such. I do, however, predict that Skeeter will get somewhere in journalism. Seeing as she has a masters in journalism, that doesn’t seem too far-fetched. I hope Minny does not get caught by Celia’s husband, but I feel as though she most likely will and both Minny and Celia will get in trouble because of it. I believe Aibileen and Skeeter’s relationship will continue to further develop as well.

  35. Jordan L

    Unbroken Chapters 1-10

    Part A – Louie Zamperini was born in Olean, New York to an Italian family. During his days as a kid, Louie suffered from a life-threatening case of pneumonia at the age of two. Also, when Louie was young he was known for being a dare devil and he showed this by his actions. When he was two years old, he jumped off a the back of a train while his family was relocating to California. In California, Louie adventured all over causing mischief and what not. Sometimes he would steal from food from markets and other items. However he would rarely ever get caught because his legs were too fast. To make sure Louie didn’t get into anymore trouble, Louie’s brother, Pete, was put in charge of him. However, this was not an easy task since Louie stock out far more than any other kid his age. At school, Louie would get made fun of for his Italian heritage and for short height. Later into his childhood, Louie’s mischief didn’t stop as he took on several classmates and police in fights. To get him out of trouble, Pete makes a deal with the principal to let Louie join a sport. Pete picks track for the sport that Louie will play since he has shown such great potential running when he steals items. At first, Louie begins to lose race after race but Pete puts some pressure on him to train and he starts winning every event that he is placed in. Soon he gets so good that he gets fifth in the All-City Finals. However, even after Louie found success in track, the amount of commitment that the sport takes is very rigorous. So Louie decides to run away with a friend to Los Angeles to escape constrainment. They climb on a train heading West but soon get kicked off soon after being spotted and now they have no where to go and begin to starve. Louie has experienced to much independency for him to take in so he had to return home. When he arrives at home, he promises to Pete that he will train as much and as hard as he wants him to. Over the next year, Louie trains all day running on an Indian reservation. Training has now taken over his life since he does everything on his feet like delivering newspapers on feet instead of on a bicycle. In 1932, Louie starts junior college in which he gains popularity among his classmates and even wins class president. If that wasn’t enough, he starts to run sub-5 minute miles and begins to beat other college schools in track meets. Before you know it, Louie is now beating everyone is his 1500 meter event. He receives a scholarship from the University of Southern California and hopes to qualify for the Olympic 1500 meter event. Louie moves in with Pete who also attends USC and begins to train for the Olympics, but unfortunately he isn’t improving his race times fast enough. However, Louie hears about the Compton Open which is famous for their 5000 meter race. Even though Louie has never ran a race that long of a distance he is confident that he can win. Louie eventually comes in second, right behind Norman Bright and his dreams of becoming an Olympic athlete are alive again when he qualifies in the Olympic trials in New York. The 1936 Olympics were held in Berlin, Germany where Adolf Hitler had power currently. In the Olympics, Louie would place 8th and would break an American record. This catches Hitler’s eye, so Louie is called up to his box where he shakes his hand and congratulates him. When the games end, Berlin begins to looks different from when the Olympic team arrived due to the highly anti-semitic posters and flags posted all around the city. However, Louie doesn’t really take notice and returned home so he can train for the 1940 Olympics in Japan. Back at home, Louie befriends Jimmie, a Japanese man who supposedly goes to an Ivy League and gives Louie the courage to beat the four minute mile. Before one of Louie’s meets, Jimmie and his friends corner Louie and beat him with he spikes of their track shoes. However, Louie still wins his race and sets a record that wouldn’t be broken for 15 years. Later in the story, Louie figures out that Jimmie was a spy for the Japanese navy. As conflicts began to accumulate overseas with Japan invading China and Germany taking over Poland, Louie prepares for the war especially after he is aware of Pearl Harbor. After Pearl Harbor, Louie is drafted into the American Army in which he is suppose to learn how to fly planes and lay down bombs with great precision. In 1942, Louie graduates from fight academy and goes home to say his goodbye since he is being deployed early to Hawaii. He sees his brother Pete at home, who is apart of the American Navy, and they have a tearful farewell. In Hawaii, the conditions aren’t as great as they had expected but they are happy to serve. Suddenly, Louie and the other men get orders to pack their bags to go on a trip to bomb an island inhabited by the Japanese. There mission becomes successful when they drop 75,000 pounds of explosives on the island. Cheers and excitement rage back on the American island as they get back from their long trip.

    Part B (Contextualization) – The world at the time, during this segment of the book was going through some unique events. In the 1930’s, the United States had just entered the Great Depression in which demolished our economy and the American people’s confidence. However later into the 30’s, newly elected President Roosevelt got us out of the depression with his government based plan called the New Deal. The New Deal gave lots of Americans jobs anreven established a minimum wage. Overseas in countries like Germany, we see leader Adolf Hitler, rise to power with a promise to build the perfect world and to get revenge for the harsh consequences put on them from the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler’s elocution eventually turns into action when he invades Poland and begin to ally themselves with Japan and Italy. Hitler soon promotes imperial action and invades several more nations. While several European nations like Great Britain are combatting Germany, back at home, Americans are unsure on what to do. We see President Roosevelt switch from a isolationist tone and become more involved in foreign affairs. Soon Roosevelt tries to get America into the war with the Atlantic Treaty which gives destroyers to Great Britain. However, America gets a wake up call on December 7th, 1941 when the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor and leave several dead and injured. This ultimately gets American into the war.

    Part C – This segment of Unbroken reminds me of when we studied the U.S. workforce before and during World War II. In the book, it describes how America was just coming out of the Great Depression and they needed a big boom in their economy. It also goes into depth about when American men and women began to work in factories building cars, tanks, planes, and guns to help supply the needs overseas. In class, we regularly discussed the impact that women had on the economy during World War II. Especially since women back then were seen as housewives and nothing else. Rosie The Riveter comes into mind when thinking about the mobilization of America into World War II because it was an act by the American government to help stimulate the economy and help out our troops overseas to get women into the workforce.

    Part D – Later in the book I predict that Louie Zamperini’s aircraft will be shot down by the Japanese air force. Then I assume that he and his pilot will then be captured and turned into prisoners of war. Under Japanese authorities, Louie and his pilot will get unbearably tortured and face several near death experiences. For the rest of the story, I predict that the plot will be focused on rescuing Louie from the Japanese and Louie’s own attempt in escaping from them. Overall, I will give the book an A+ just for how well written the book is, the amazing plot that is given, and how you can feel the connection between yourself and the character. I definitely recommend this book for next year because it covers the insides of war instead of the outsides in which we basically only covered in class. This book reminds me of The Things They Carried because it is essentially from a soldiers point of view. Lastly, I feel like I have a very good connection with Pete since I am the good boy in my family while my older brother got into loads of trouble while in high school. Also, just like Louie my brother has shaped up and fixed his life.

  36. Grace Jung

    a. I read the first 100 pages of “Orphan Train” by Christina Baker Kline. The beginning of the book is set in Spruce Harbor, Maine in 2011. You meet one of the main characters Molly who is an orphan and is with her foster family. She is a Native American and used to live on a Reservation with her family. But one fateful night her dad died on the highway and after that her mother was on a downward spiral and ended up in jail. In the beginning you figure out that Molly stole a book and to get out of having to go to juvie she needs to do 50 hours of community service. So her friend Jack gets her the 50 hours she needs by telling her an old lady, Vivian, needs her attic cleaned. Then the book goes back to Vivian’s past and turns out that she was an immigrant during the end of the third wave of immigrants that arrived from Ireland. Because of the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the British, her family had to move to America because the economy was in ruins and her dad could not find a job. But later when she arrives through Ellis Island, like most immigrants, their house catches on fire and her whole family ends up dead. except for herself. So she is taken care for a little while by her neighbors who are German then sent to a Children’s Aid Society where she will be adopted. The book has a unique style and switches between the past and the present. So the book returns back to the present and all of Vivian’s old stuff is in the attic kept away. Vivian decides not to throw anything out so Molly is just organizing them and putting the stuff back in their place. And some of the items that molly finds in the attic is mentioned and explained in the later chapters where it skips to the past. So going back to 1929, Vivian is on a train with other orphans like herself. She gets paired with a boy named Hans but nicknamed Dutchy and she also has to take care of a little boy named Carmine. Also, her name that she was given by her parents is Niahm. You follow her journey in the train and her journey on getting adopted. She was first unwanted because she was Irish, but one family took her. The family that takes her in only wants her as a worker, but then is given the name Dorothy. The father is an Irish Catholic and the mother is a strong Christian. Their business is doing fine and Niahm finally settles down, but after a year or so with them, the stock market crashes. The family is greatly affected by the stock market crash because the father had put a lot of their money into the stock market. This is the beginning of The Great Depression. Because the parents can no longer afford to have Niahm they give her away. I don’t think there is any bias in this book because I think the author is trying to correctly portray the emotions and hatred that most Americans had for the Irish.

    b. There is a lot of contextualization in this book because it is over a long period of time and changes from different time periods. In 2011 America had Barack Obama as president. It was during 2011 when Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden was killed while American troops were fighting in Pakistan. Another important thing that happened during this time period was the stock market crash in 2011. It is known today as Black Monday and happened because of the Friday night credit rating downgrade. This wasn’t as big as The Great Depression but after 20 minutes the DOW lost 200 points and more. So these events that are happening in 2011 are similar to the things happening in 1929. Because 1929 was the start of The Great Depression. This effected thousands if not millions of people all across America because many of them had invested in it much like Niahm’s first “adopted” parents. This was also the time period in between the first world war and the second world war so there was still a lot of tension surrounding Western Europeans, like the Irish.

    c. We studied the Great Depression a little bit right before the AP exam for this class. We learned that that the failing old industries like the textile industry for women’s clothing no longer needed as much cotton and other fabrics to produce their clothing, which was connected to the change of women’s fashion. Niahm’s first adopted parents were apart of that time period and apart of the textile industry. They had their own little business with about 10 or less girls who hand sewed everything, including Niahm. So that meant that these industries went out of business because of the Great Depression. People had to sew and mend their own clothes because they could no longer afford for someone else to sew them. The Great Depression is the reason why Niahm had to move with another family. Like most people in the country during the Great Depression she was laid off or kicked out of that family because they could no longer afford to feed her and themselves.

    d. When Niahm is in the train I stated above that she met a boy named Hans. Well, they made an agreement that when they were older that they would meet and find each other again when they are old enough to. I predict that she will find him again and that she will marry him. Or another possible outcome could be that Hans does meet Niahm but he is already sick and he dies before they can marry. I also predict that Molly and Vivian will become closer because their stories are very much alike. They are both orphans and have been through many parents who have neglected them. And they both meet a boy who they very much like. I also think that she will be sent back on the train because the author titled the book “Orphan Train” so she probably is on the train more than once, right? And I don’t think I can make much of a connection with Molly or Vivian. I have been fortunate enough to have parents and a good education. The problems that both of these two characters face are much more difficult and complicated than any of the problems that I will face in my time because of how well off I am.

  37. Ashley A

    A. In the first 8 chapters of Fever 1793 by Laurie Halse Anderson, the setting of the plot and the personality of the main character is developed. The reader learns that the book takes place in Pennsylvania by the busy riverside in the hot summer months and that the main character is 14 year old Matilda Cook. In the beginning section, one learns of Matilda’s desire for adventure that can’t be fulfilled due to her duties at the coffeehouse that was built by her late father that died of a broken neck after falling from a ladder. Her mother came from an upper class family and wishes to marry Matilda back into that type of life. The threat of a deadly fever grows throughout these chapters. The severity of the disease is little in the beginning parts, but grows rapidly after her healthy servant girl Polly dies mysteriously of an unknown type of fever. When Mattie goes to the store she hears the bells that count amount of people dead from the fever. Also, in the talk amongst the customers in her coffeehouse and market she hears of the different theories that people have on the creation and spread of the fever which include the lack of people attending church, the immigrants carry it when they come, and that it was just another summer fever that Pennsylvania goes through each year. The death count, along with the heat, increases rapidly and hospitals are provided for the poor. Mattie and her mom get invited to tea with one of the few wealthy families still in the city that haven’t fled to the country. Her mom tries to court Mattie with one of the hostess’ son’s. However, at the table, the hostess’ daughter collapses of exhaustion and a high temperature fever. Mattie leaves and goes to the printing press with her grandfather, who doesn’t believe in the fever, and they learn of the many precautions given by the college of physicians causing him to rethink his stance on the fever. On their way home, they encounter a poor man with a seemingly dead woman in his cart going toward the coffeehouse. Thinking it’s a fever infected women Mattie’s grandfather rushes toward him to tell him to go away. However, as the poor man stops he dumps the women out of the cart and Mattie and her grandfather realize that it is Mattie’s mother, barely breathing.
    B. In this section of the novel the author, highlights the modesty and “closed” nature of women during this time. In the very beginning of the novel, Mattie is worried about her dress that almost shows her ankles and declines fishing with her friend, who is a boy, because she would have to show her elbows and “one must be careful with elbows and boys” (Anderson). There was a certain way that women were to present and conduct themselves in front of men and deviation from these norms was considered immoral. This type of lifestyle is very different from today where women are free to do almost anything and can dress as they please without looking for the acceptance of others. A woman from the 21st century would probably be shunned in Mattie’s time because of the grave differences between the norms of 2017 and 1793.
    C. In APUSH we learned of the levels of disgusting behaviors of people during this time period. We discussed how the people didn’t really consider good hygiene as a necessity and it was often overlooked, though it was the cause if many diseases. Anderson shows the nastiness of the people in many sections of this novel through many phrases. During the start of the book, for example, Mattie considers bathing but decides to hold it off until December, she decides this in August. Also, Mattie recognizes the stench of market to be unwashed bodies and rotting food which is a terrible condition to have anywhere.
    D. I give this section a B because it was a very good opener to the story and provides good background for the reader’s comprehension. However, some chapters seem repetitive causing a loss of attention in the reader. I predict that Mattie’s mother will die of the yellow fever and that her grandfather and she will try to leave Pennsylvania for the country. I don’t feel connected with Mattie in this section of the book because her problems and my issues differ greatly but I can relate to her want for adventured and independence from her surroundings.

  38. Pietro Davi

    The Boys of Pointe Du Hoc
    a) This book starts off with Reagan’s speech of 1982, where Reagan reminds America the immensity of the D-Day invasion and motivation of the battalions. In one of his later speeches, he reminds the country of the 225 men who helped secure the arrival of land troops in Normandie. The speech helped commemorate the heroic fighters but also revived a sense of patriotism and national pride in Americans’ soul. During the first three chapters of the book, it covers where the word “ranger” and “commando”. It starts by talking about the early American wars with the French and Indians, and touches on the Civil War. The author mentions important battles and talks about the diverse types of armies of those times, and gives the names rangers to the soldiers. The book later goes to a more modern time, during WWII. It revolves around two major military men: Churchill and Eisenhower, and their military techniques. The creation of battalions is then the major focus of the book. Two of them were created, and the group of men inside were called rangers. Their training was very strict and harsh, as they were considered as the best of the best in their country. The first battalion was sent in 1942 to try and liberate the French coast to push away the Nazi’s. This attempt failed completely, as many soldiers were killed and wounded. A few years later, a second chance is given to this plan. The rangers of the second battalion, led by Rugger, go through a more complex training, to be both efficient on land against steep slopes, as well as on water. The attack on Pointe Du Hoc is undergone in 1944, and thanks to previous bombings along the coast of France, the rangers were able to penetrate the Nazi defenses and set a path for the Allied armies to follow. In these three chapters, the book seems to have a pretty neutral view, although it definitely supports the rangers: “Jealous barbs aside, these rangers were now more than a ‘band of brothers’…” (pg 45). This passage shows how the author supports the rangers and calls the regular soldiers barbs because of their lack of sentiment and motivation toward the ranger patches.
    b) These first three chapters use a lot of synthesis and change and continuity historical thinking skills. The comparison between time periods, especially when the author explains the origins and significance of the word “ranger”, is obvious. The battalions of the war are compared to Civil War armies with the way they fight and how they conduce their attacks by see. The main focus is continuity rather than change, and especially the comparison between time periods with the use of synthesis to show the link between generals such as Washington to present day men like Churchill and Eisenhower.
    c) The book’s main focus is WWII, which we have studied very deeply in the class. The focus on D-Day is expanded upon in this book and talks more in depth about it. It shows the opposing forces of the war, in particular the allies against the Nazi, which we have studied earlier this year. One of the main ideas of battalions and war efforts of this book can be compared to most of the wars we have studied and how specific armies were created to overcome certain obstacles, even if the victory wasn’t always guaranteed. Guerillas are mentions at times, and can be related to the type of War the U.S. was fighting in Vietnam against the Vietcong.
    d) The victory over Pointe Du Hoc has been accomplished, so I believe that the main group of Rangers, the Second Battalion, will continue to be the center of the attention for the whole book. The title clearly shows its focus, so I believe that the book will stick to the events of WWII and won’t transition to the present day of Ronald Reagan’s presidency. The tactics of the rangers will continue to be expanded upon and more leaders will be revealed.

  39. Davit Tran

    A. The novel that I chose to read is Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand. Unbroken starts off following young Louis Zamperini a child born in 1910’s. As a child, Louis was very rebellious and mischievous. His family lived in rural California and was very poor; they often found themselves living paycheck to paycheck. As a result, Louis would steal food from his neighbors and the local bakery. As Louis got older, he got even more reckless. But at that time, men and women were being sterilized if they were seen as a menace to society. This ideal was called Eugenics. All over the U.S, men and women were getting sterilized and Louis did not want himself to be apart of that club. So he decided to clean up his act ands starts working at the Locksmiths. But when he finds out that the key to his house can open up the door to his school gym, he starts letting people in for free during sporting events. This gets his banned from all school sport events. But his brother Pete argued with the principal to allow Louis to play sports and persuaded the principal that sports were the only way to correct Louis. Pete was right, Louis was good at running, and broke many records. Instead of being a menace to society, he started running to keep his mind off causing ruckuses. Louis kept on running until he got a scholarship to the University of Southern California. He keeps on training and eventually makes the Olympic running team. Louis was determined to take gold. The Olympics were held in Germany that year, and Hitler saw Louis talent and congratulated him. But before the next Olympics could be held, World War II was unfolding. Louis realized that if he enrolled, he could pick his position rather than get drafted into a random one. So Louis enrolls the air force. His training goes well and he is assigned the job of manning the B-24 Bomber planes. These planes are very unstable and more deaths are from crashing the plane rather getting hit. But Louis and six other men take on the responsibility and do such a good job that they become famous. Soon when the American troops are camped, Japanese forces bomb their base leave many men dead. Louis is lucky and makes it out alive, he is transferred to another station. One day when Louis is out running, somebody tells Louis and Pete that Clarence’s plane never landed and Louis and Pete and other men go to find the plane. But the planes are so old and outdated that it crashes into the water and the men find themselves struggling to survive. The begging of this story starts near the end of WWI and makes its way through WWII. The novel is very war biased. The main character is the book is a man. During that time, it was you were either pro of anti war. Louis was pro-war, and he even registered for it. Or even Louis experience. He was a war hero and his story was spread to the world.
    B. During this time, Germany was starting to rise with their new Leader Hitler. Germany felt oppressed after WWI and decided to rebel against everyone who gave them harsh reparations. Nazi Germany also wanted to spread their government to weak countries in Europe. At first the U.S. didn’t get involved until the Japanese showed aggression. Pearl Harbor was an attack on an American naval base by the Japanese.
    C. The novel talked a lot about the Olympics. Louis Zamperini was an Olympic athlete after one race, he was brought to Adolf Hitler so that Hitler could congratulate him. In the movie Race, Jesse Owens a black racer won many metals during the Berlin Olympics but was never congratulated by Hitler because he was black. The novel also talked about Eugenics. Eugenics was the idea of a utopia where no incompetent people lived. Doctors and corporations were starting to sterilize people without their consent. These people were ex-convicts, women who had affairs, and even people who pleasured themselves.
    D. So far I like the book a lot I would give it an A-. Right now Louis and his crew are stranded. I predict that they will be stranded for some time and later get discovered by the Japanese and become POWs of the Japanese and escape somehow. I think this book should definitely hold a spot on the list. Not only does the noval talk about WWII, but it also gives a personal perspective during that time. A perspective that doesn’t only focus on the war, but mini events during that time like the Olympics.

  40. Jacob Kroll

    Unbroken- Jacob Kroll

    a. I am reading the book Unbroken by Laura Hillenbrand. This was also reimagined in a hit 2014 movie. I am currently on chapter 4 and still reading at the moment. The story begins with introducing us to men stranded on a raft in the ocean. These men are being surrounded by sharks. They then spot a plane, who they believe is attempting to rescue them, but eventually tries to shoot them. They dive into the water and the chapter ends. This is when the real story begins. In the exposition of the story we are introduced to our main characters Louie and Pete Zamperini. This shows bias in the story by showing how immigrants or 2nd generation immigrants were picked on by others. Pete was Louie’s older brother in which he paid great attention to etiquette, and was more normal, where Louie was a dangerous, mischievous daredevil. Louie is bullied a lot for being not only short but Italian. Pete who is a great athlete, eventually persuades Louie to Join the track team at the school (he finishes last). Louie eventually gets frustrated and runs away with a friend. They return home hungry once they are kicked off a train in Los Angeles. Pete gives up and allows Pete to train him without hesitation. In the summer Louie trains on an Indian reservation where he nonstop runs, running whenever he could, wherever he could. He eventually meets a man named Glenn Cunningham who was burned and became a great runner. This inspires him as he moves into middle school where he begins to become an amazing runner and quite popular. He eventually beats the national high school mile record and gains the nickname Torrance Tornado. He soon accepts a scholarship and moves into his brother’s old frat house in USC. He then goes to a race known as the Compton open with the goal to stay with a man named Norman Bright who is a for sure Olympic qualifier.

    b. So far the story can be easily defined through periodization in which there is an obvious turning point. The order of the the periods are easy to tell as they are already in order but the turning point may seem like Pete convincing Louie to join the track team, I believe the real turning point is when Louie attempts to run away and comes back defeated ready to train. This really sets up the story for Louie on his journey to the Olympics, by him giving up all his aspiration to quit, as he is subjected to do as his brother intends for him, which is to simply, run.

    c. This book relates greatly to APUSH as it is in the late 20’s and 30’s era. During this time many new emergences occurred such as the 2nd rise of the KKK, but most importantly at the time WW2 is beginning. This connects greatly to APUSH because WW2 was beginning and in 1936 the world Olympics were happening. I’m inferring that Louie does go to the Olympics which means he interacts with each country involved in the war.

    d. I give my book an A-, overall it is a great book, but American History is not my ideal genre. I believe that Louie will make it to the Olympics and get the gold medal

  41. Clare Walton

    a.) The book i’m reading is called Chains by Laurie Halse Anderson. This book is about a girl in slavery who is sold to a cruel couple in boston after her master dies. She was promised slavery when her master died but no one knows where the lawyer went to prove that it was written in the will. Isabel, the slave girl, realizes that she holds her loyalty to whoever can provide her sister and herself freedom. So far in what i’ve read her master has died and the master’s son sold them at a tavern to a man and his wife, the Locktons, as house slaves. The couple live in boston and Isabel is trying to get used to her new life while keeping an eye on her little sister Ruth. Her master has said that he is loyal to the patriots but everyone in town, even the slaves who work for him, believe that he is loyal to the King. Isabel is asked to spy on her new master to try to get information.

    b.) During this time period the colonies were getting ready to be independent from great britain. This sparked a lot of controversies between the colonists like the ones that are in the book between certain characters. Slaves were still a relevant thing in this time but most of the selling and buying of slaves happened within the colonies. Slaves were not brought in to the states as much anymore. During this time people would pledge their loyalties to others to make sure that they could trust each other. People like the Locktons would lie to others to protect themselves, there was always a chance that if you were thought to be spying from the other side or a threat, you would be thrown in jail.

    c.) this reading connects to apush because it deals with the slaves being traded in the states and the lead up to the Revolutionary War. this is the time the colonist were getting really fed up with Great Britain taxing them and the Second Continental Congress is working to get American independence from Britain.

    d.) i think that in the story the main character will decide to spy for the patriots against the Tories that she lives with. This will then make life so much harder for her and her sister because her masters will find out about what she’s done. But then someone for the patriots will come and save them and free them.

  42. Emily Juriga

    a. Orphan train, by Christina Baker Kline, is a novel about two orphaned girls who both are or were struggling with being an orphan and finding a house to call home. The only catch is that these two orphaned girls are from different time periods. Molly, who is 16 years old, was abandoned by her father and was put in the foster care system. She takes on a new style and new persona at each new home, but when she meets Jack, her boyfriend, she starts to think more about the effort it takes to dress up every day and to put on a mask. But from a recent crime, Molly must complete 50 hours of community service or she will be put in Juvie. Luckily for her, Jack got her a gig with a woman named Vivian to clean her attic. The narrator switches from Molly in 2011 to another orphaned child, Niamh, in 1929. Every couple of chapters, Kline switches between the two perspectives, allowing the reader to expand on two story lines at once. The parallel story line of Niamh begins with her whole family coming over to America from Ireland to live in New York City.
    In New York, Niamh and her family lived in a small apartment, but tragedy struck when her whole family died in a fire and she became an orphan. She boarded the orphan train that was taking orphaned children westward to get adopted by farm folk, and she got adopted at the train’s second stop; Albans, Minnesota. The last event that I read from this section was Niamh being adopted by the Byrnes, who owns a sewing business. Niamh isn’t having much luck there and she doesn’t have the sewing skills that she was expected to have. I have noticed a biased in this book that seems re-occurring, having to do with Niamh’s adoption. Soon to be adopters will only chose impressionable children or strong young boys to adopt, and Niamh felt a hopeless to find adopters who would love her and adopt her, and she knew as well as everyone else that she would be one of a few left to be adopted, because of her age and gender.
    b. The time period leading up to 1929, when Niamh was adopted by the Byrnes’, there were tens of thousands of homeless children living astray on the streets of New York City. The Children’s Aid Society was founded by a Charles Brace who believed he could change the futures of the thousands of children stranded. He thought by placing them with moral families to work and be useful to society, then he would be saving them from a life time of suffering as homeless people on the street. So children were taken from New York to be placed or adopted in Farm homes out west, to help out as extra hands. Niamh’s neighbors, whom she went to after her family died, took her to this organization so that Niamh (just another Irish child taking up space) could be out of their hair.
    c. The Power Family (Niamh’s Family) emigrated to America from Ireland in search of prosperity. The Family was starving and the children went to bed at night hungry, and they decided to go to the promise land of America, where they heard America was fruitful and had an overwhelming amount of jobs. But America, or New York, was nothing they thought it would be. They had nowhere to live, and the father was hoping to able to support his family better in this new country, but the only place he was welcomed was in an Irish Pub. There was a strong American Nationality that American born people shared, and more often than not American nationalists didn’t like immigrants coming in and taking prosperous jobs. So immigrants were discriminated against and hated by most people, especially the Irish. The Irish were thought of as scummy drunks, and were pushed away by many people, which made the Powers family feel remorseful for leaving the country they knew and felt comfortable in.
    d. I have a few predictions about what may happen in orphan train. My first prediction is that the old lady whom owns the attic that Molly is cleaning, Vivian, is also Niamh (Dorothy). So far it seems logical that the red headed old lady that Molly just so happens to be set up with is also the red-headed, Irish main character of the other storyline. If my prediction is wrong, I would be very surprised and I would be eager to find out who Vivian is and her importance to the novel. For a couple of days, Niamh befriended a boy on the Orphan Train, Dutchy, who got adopted by a couple who wanted him as a hay-baler. Another prediction I have is that Dutchy will find Niamh when they are grown and able to travel, and they will develop a relationship, and that will be who she marries.

  43. Zacharie Chentouf

    a. This is the first part of the novel Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption written by Laura Hillenbrand. During this first part of the book, we see Louie Zamperini evolve from a young boy to the beginning of him fighting in World War I. Before this however, we see the Preface, where Louie and his crew are stuck in the middle of the sea, and have to jump in the water to escape Japanese fire, even though the sharks could eat them. Louie was one of two children by Italian immigrants, Louise and Anthony, the other being his older brother Pete. As a young boy, as soon as he was able to walk, Louie would always be going about, around everywhere, jumping off trains, running away for the mischief in it, and stealing. There was one thing he was scared of: aircraft and flying objects. His family moved to Torrance soon after Louie’s birth, where Louie spent his childhood. In high school, he gets in trouble after starting to let in kids to basketball games for free by finding out he could open the door of it with his home key. This leads to talking to the principal, and Pete convinces allow him to play a sport, running, because Louie had already been prohibited from going to any sports activities or participating in any as previous punishments, and Pete argued that Louie needed a motivation, goal, to occupy his time instead of mischief. At first, Louie despised running, but he began to start loving it,, especially after trying to run away and coming back home, his brother training him every day, even when he was in college, doing it in the afternoon. He continues to this in college too, wins the class presidency, becoming extremely popular, running really fast miles, and blowing away the competition. Louie broke the high school national record for the mile, and begins to think he can actually make the 1936 Olympics for running, for the closest race to a two-mile, the 1500 meters. However, he soon realizes he just isn’t improving enough. He ends up attending the University of Southern California after receiving a scholarship, since Pete was already attending it. He becomes known as the “Torrance Tornado”, people from Torrance loving him, really marking a switch in public opinion of him since before he was known by some of the people in the town for stealing some things such as baked goods. He then hears of the Compton Open, a 5000-meter meet for the Olympics. Even though he has never trained long distance, Louie decides to train for this, and makes the Olympics. Going to the Olympics, Louie gains twelve pounds, and doesn’t believe in his chance to gain silverware because of Finland’s dominance. He wins his qualifying race, and arrives eighth in the final after being much farther behind as he ran the fastest lap in this race, 56 seconds, by giving everything he had his last lap. Hitler even invites him to meet him. After the race, Louie sees a Nazi flag, not really knowing what it means, deciding to keep it as a souvenir. He tries to take it, and runs away from two guards who see him, only to be captured, then released after his identity is revealed. After the Olympics end, the Olympics village become military barracks, the first Jewish people are put in concentration camps, and Nazi flags are risen. Once back in the Untied States, Louie trains extremely hard, wanting to break the 4-minute mile, not able to do so as World War II is on the verge of starting. The 1940 Olympics, Louie’s goal, are cancelled as Hitler’s bombs destroy the stadium it was to be held at. Louie decides to enlist in the draft early, like many other runners and athletes, picking the Air Corps. Louie earns great test scores, and is sent off to training to use certain planes, including high technology, as a bomber. He meets his team, including the pilot Russell Allen Phillips “Phil”. They are assigned to B-24 bombers, and paint and name theirs Super-Man after initially hating it because the B-24 had the reputation of being weak and easy to break. Louie and his team are sent to Oahu, which has just been hit by the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nothing much happens for the first few weeks, until Louie and his crew are sent to attack with other squadrons at Wake to destroy a Japan base, which is a huge success. Next, Louie and his crew have two missions, ending his safe. The next mission they have is extremely dangerous. Louie is sent to attack the Japanese base on Nauru, which his high in phosphate and will have ten to twelve Zeros, Japanese planes, waiting for them. When attacking, Louie drops all his bombs successfully, but while they are dropping bombs, Zeros circle them and they are unable to escape, the plane controlled by the droppings of the bombs of Louie. They suffer heavy damage, six hours from their base, having just enough hydraulic power to get back, land there and brake. They suffer heavy injuries, which also included the death of one of their crewmen, Brooks, one of the gunners, and they were extremely close to dying.

    b. Let us look at change and continuity with respect to planes in different wars, especially in the periods directly before and after World War II. The first time that planes were really introduced to major warfare was World War I, an attempt to stop Germany from dominating the war, in which dogfights did occur, but planes were in their primitive state. During the war, the first planes could not even shoot, but did develop throughout, after such states as having to shoot from the side of them after being an unable to find a way to shoot through the propeller. During World War II, another attempt to stop Germany, we see planes on an even more major scale than before, but they continue to be used as major forces of combat, like the B-24s that Louie and his crew are using. However, during this time, planes are a lot more complex, having many different roles. For example, the B-24 had any different positions and areas, including the pilot (Phil), co-pilot, bombardier (Louie), nose gunner, navigator, bomb bay, top turret gunner, catwalk, belly gunner, waist gunners on each side, hatch, camera, and tail gunner. These B-24s can fly at a height of 20,000-30,000 feet. Towards the end of World War II, planes are used to drop bombs again, as a major weapon, the atomic bombs Fat Man and Little Boy on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, respectively. In the 1950s, under Eisenhower, we see the U-2 planes being used to spy on the Soviets, to stop them from spreading communism, to contain it in the Cold War, flying at 70,000 feet! They have extremely advanced technology, not weapons this time, cameras, but like before, are still being used in warfare and against the enemy. In the 1960s, we see the planes under Lyndon Johnson after Kennedy’s death being used in the Vietnam War during “Americanization” drop bombs again during Operation Rolling Thunder, even on the neutral nations of Cambodia and Laos, but this time not in a global conflict, and also dropping napalm, a biohazard designed to hurt chemically and deforest the environment to reveal and kill the Vietcong, the enemy in South Vietnam.

    c. This reading has many connections to APUSH. We see Louie dropping bombs on the Japanese base in Nauru, which connects to the way napalm was dropped Vietnam, the biological hazard which caused many diseases, even in the neutral countries of Cambodia and Laos, and in South Vietnam, to the people the United States was supposed to be protecting. This is especially similar because even though they did not know it at the time, Americans that had been collecting the phosphate at Nauru were still there when Louie and the other Americans bombed the base, actually being bombed by their allies and comrades, even though it was not being done on purpose. We also Louie’s parents being Italian immigrants, and since Louie was born in 1917, we can assume his parents had come before World War I. During this time, many immigrants came over to the United States for economic opportunity. At one point, New York actually had more Italians than Rome, Venice, and Turin combined!! The Southern farmers in Italy especially were losing a lot of money, and saw the Gilded Age and the Industrial Revolution in the United States as an opportunity. Many of the Italian immigrants became industrial workers in cities such as New York, Zamperini being born in New York, his father having being a coal miner and boxer when 14, then becoming a construction worker.

    d. I predict that in the future, one mission that the Super-Man and its crew will undertake will go terribly wrong, and that they will have to crash land in the sea. I believe the novel will then follow how they try and survive in the middle of the sea, maybe finding a piece of land and what they do to survive there. I think that there will be losses in the crew, maybe even Phil, the pilot, who Louie became close to, in order to show the losses seen in war, and the traumatic events that war soldiers have to go through. I believe it will show Louie in his later life, and how he has been affected by all of this at the end of the book. Connecting to the story, one of my friends wants to run in the Olympics, and I see the hard work it is, as he trains every day. I also read a book in freshman year, Running for my Life, an autobiography of a boy in Sudan becoming a runner in the Olympics, and it is interesting to see how in contrast, Louie and my friend trained specifically to became Olympic runners, while Anthony Lopez had to run all the time from the soldiers that came in his village to make him a child soldier, had to run to a refugee camp to Kenya, had to run 30 miles every day in poor conditions in a refugee camp in Sudan to play soccer because too many people were playing and they wanted less people to play, not knowing he was training to become an Olympic runner at all. I am also an immigrant to this country, just Louie’s parents were, and just like only Italian was spoken in their house, only French was spoken in mine. It was hard for me, especially in school when I didn’t understand everything, and some people made fun of me for my accent as a young boy. Louie was often times bullied because of his Italian origins, despite not being immigrant himself, and I understand how hard that feels.

  44. Marshall Lockyer

    a. Unbroken is about Louis Zamperini’s life. Growing up, Louis was a loose cannon, stole everything he could get his hands on, wasn’t polite, got it lots of fights and did not apply himself in school. He begins to shape up his life after his brother convinces him to join the track team after persuading the principal to let his previous offences slide with smooth talking and talks about Louis’ potential as a runner. Soon after, Louis becomes the best miler in the country after being trained by his older brother, Pete. After setting his sights on the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, he eventually qualifies in the 5,000 meter race, an event he never participated in until weeks before the qualifiers. The book changes gears a little bit after this and begins to discuss Germany and Japan. Louis then joins the airforce, which is ironic because earlier in the story, Laura Hillenbrand says that Louis only has one fear, planes.

    b. A lot was going on during the books main time period. Hitler and the Nazi’s were becoming increasingly powerful and were creating a huge military, though the war hadn’t started yet. Additionally, the 1936 Olympics were being held in Berlin, where almost 4,000 athletes participated, only a little more than 300 of those athletes were women. Lastly, at home, Franklin D Roosevelt was the President and the United States were in the middle of the great depression.

    c. Unsurprisingly, this book connects to when we learned about WWII. The book is about a man who was part of the armed forces during the war. Additionally, it discusses the economy and governmental action in regards to preparation for war, (making lots of war goods). Furthermore, I see a connection to our unit on American imperialism. Though it talks a lot about Japan’s imperialism and how they thought that the countries surrounding them were inferior, it sounds very familiar to what we did in the Philippines, and how we thought that they were too dumb to be able to govern themselves.

    d. I think that Louis will escape from the Japanese POW camps and come home a hero, thus being “Unbroken”. I know what his plane crashes and they are found by the Japanese and taken as prisoners, but I’m confident that Louis will try something audacious due to his personality and his ability to run. Right now, I’d give this book a B. Though I find his childhood interesting and inspiring, I really want to know what happens during his time as a POW and how he responds to the adversity. I would currently recommend keeping this book available for next year, as this book is interesting and I am anticipating lots of accurate details that will help my understanding of WWII. I think I can relate to some of Louis Zamperini’s childhood. Though I was never a mischievous little boy and never struggled with poverty like Louis, I am very motivated by sports and look up to my older brother.

  45. Rania Abbasi

    a) I’m reading “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness” by Michelle Alexander. For the first section, I read the introduction, chapter one, and chapter two. The introduction basically talks about the general ideas floating around in the book such as “colorblindness”, how a racial caste system still exists with a black president, failure to recognize the New Jim Crow (mass incarceration) as a real social justice issue, and more. The first chapter, The Rebirth of Caste, goes into detail about, well, the rebirth of a racial caste system. Alexander stresses the fact that, although different racial castes have existed in the past (slavery, Jim Crow), they always have the same endgame; no matter what the rules. Then, Alexander takes us through the different historical advancements of racial caste – starting with after indentured servitude. We go through the Reconstruction Era, then to the “Redemption” Era (after Reconstruction) which tried to find loopholes in the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; i.e. convict leasing, leading to a dramatic increase in prison population (of predominantly black people). Later, we read about the rise in “law and order” rhetoric from Republican governments during/after the Civil Rights Movement. This later led to Reagan calling the “War on Drugs” which essentially was a war on black folk. The prison population skyrocketed again to almost 2 million by the end of the 20th century. Chapter 2, The Lockdown, goes more into the War on Drugs and what it meant for those incarcerated. Alexander talks about how law enforcement dealt with it – hesitantly at first, then ruthless later on. Poor people that were put in jail had no way to get out because they couldn’t afford lawyers. Guilty pleas skyrocketed. Another major thing to keep in mind is that once some of these incarcerated folks got out of jail, they wouldn’t be able to get jobs or see their families; leading them to commit more [minor] crimes, getting them back in jail.

    b) This current era of mass incarceration of black folks can be compared to the era after Reconstruction. Many conservatives and/or racists were trying to find loopholes in the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments by using convict leasing and putting many blacks in jail for minor crimes. The spike in prison population is a similar trend. Also, those that would use literacy tests that were bound to make blacks fail—on top of the KKK pressuring blacks away from the polls—prevented many black folks from voting at all.

    c) My reading right now relates to when we learned about Jim Crow Laws and the Civil Rights Movement during the late 20th century. Blacks were segregated in all public resources and were denied many basic human rights. The only thing different about the “New Jim Crow” is that we don’t hear of many racial activists pushing for an end to mass incarceration. This is something that the author stresses in the book. Sure, some activists are aware of what’s happening, but what’s actually being done to stop it? During the Civil Rights Movement, we learned that people protested in a variety of ways such as sit-ins, bus boycotts, and marches. Just because this type of racial caste isn’t something we can clearly see in the open, doesn’t mean it’s not there and isn’t important.

    d) I can’t really /predict/ what’s going to happen since this is a non-fiction book without a plot, however I suppose I could say that the author will write more about the War on Drugs and how it increased mass incarceration nationally. I would give this book a B so far because it’s got good facts and is very interesting, however there is probably some author bias and every chapter is quite lengthy to read. If you’re interested enough, it’s a great read.

  46. Jack Walt

    The Help by Kathryn Stockett

    a. The first quarter of The Help, by Kathryn Stockett, has been an interesting view into the lives of African American maids in the South during the Civil Rights movement. Aibileen, one of these maids, cares for a two-year-old child that she calls “Baby Girl”. Aibileen endures hardship often, as her son recently died at work and the family that she works for built a small, “colored only” bathroom in their garage. Her best friend Minny, another maid, endures this as well when she is fired from her job and false accusations of her stealing spread throughout the town. She manages to get a job with an odd, incompetent women named Celia. She seems grateful for Minny’s help and treats her like a guest, which she is not used to. Skeeter, a 22 year old white woman, has recently returned to her childhood city from college. She has trouble fitting in with the other white women due to her lack of ladylike characteristics. Skeeter also discovers that her childhood maid, whom she was very close to, was no longer working for her family. She aspires to be a writer and needs Aibileen’s help to write about maids. She witnesses some of the tensions between blacks and whites in this experience, something that she had not seen when she used to live there. Aibileen backs out of her offer to help Skeeter, but changes her mind in hopes to voice her opinion.

    b. This introduction relates to the period of Reconstruction in America after the Civil War. Black people had just been freed from the shackles of slavery, but rejoining civilization was not easy. They struggled to get back into the workforce, as they took low level jobs and some even found loopholes to emancipation and continued their forced labor. In The Help, the black maids are mainly treated like second class citizens in their work and social lives. Violent acts against blacks in the south was far from uncommon and they were forced to use separate facilities, promoting this systematic racism. The book shows this struggle to overcome prejudice, the struggle that their ancestors faced a century before.

    c. Segregation was a large subject in the book. Hilly, a white women married to a future politician, supports the need for segregation and Aibileen is forced to use a small, separate bathroom from the family that she works for. This segregation is due to the Plessy vs. Ferguson trial which declared blacks to be separate but equal in 1896. This was repealed after the Civil Rights Movement, but left a lasting race divide that is still present today.

    d. I believe that the book will cover the movements that took place in the south during this time as well as the character involvement in them. I think they will show a type of rebellious nature towards their employers and participate in the gatherings. I think (and hope) that the book will cover the lives of the maids after the Civil Rights Movement and how they were affected by it. I have no connection with characters in the book, because the book mostly cover women living in the south during the 1960s. If I had to choose one however, I would choose Skeeter because of her well intended actions and her educated ability to see past appearance. She attempts to work with Aibileen to share and write about her opinion in the editorial, which is uncommon.

  47. Griffin Kozlow

    The Astonishing Life of Octavian Nothing, Traitor to the Nation: Volume 1 – The Pox Party by M.T. Anderson is an incredible story of a social experiment taking place in colonial Boston. A young African boy, Octavian, and his mother, ex-princess, Cassiopeia are taken to an experimental school in Boston: the Novanglian College of Lucidity, better known as the College. While many people come in and out of this house, none of them have names. They are all given numbers, a system of hierarchy created by the leader of the College: Mr. Gitney, better known as 03-01. There are only two residents at the College given names: Octavian and Cassiopeia. Mr. Gitney’s plan is to prove that Africans can be educated and cultured just as white people. Octavian is used as an experiment to prove this. He is taught by his teacher, 09-01, to read, write, do math problems, and analyze open-ended philosophical questions. One day, Octavian meets a man, Bono, who explains to him that his pregnant mother was bought by Mr. Gitney as a slave. This changes Octavian’s whole view of life. One day, the Lord Cheldthorpe, 02-01, dies. Octavian learns that 02-01 was the biggest donor to the college, and in losing him, they lose much of their support. To solve this issue, 02-01’s nephew, also named the Lord Cheldthorpe, comes to visit the College to see if he wants to support their ideas. He wants to go by the name LC. When LC sees the beautiful Cassiopeia, he instantly falls in love. He doesn’t want to leave the college because he doesn’t want to leave Cassiopeia. One day, all the “important” people from the college take a trip to the wilderness of New York. Cassiopeia and LC keep on flirting, and Octavian gets fed up with it. However, when LC teaches Octavian to swim, although Octavian knows he is only doing it to get closer to Cassiopeia, he begins to like LC more. After their trip, LC asks Cassiopeia to move to England with him, and when she says no, he whips both Octavian and Cassiopeia, their first ever whipping. When they return back at the College, 03-01 seems to be in a bad mood. They can only assume LC pulled out his donations.

    This story takes place during one of the most vital times of American History: pre-Revolutionary War America. Slavery is alluded to, and when Octavian hears about the Revolution, he realizes that there may possibly be talks about ending slavery. Sadly, that doesn’t happen until a century later. Many times, the phrase “taxation without representation” is used, and Octavian wonders what it means. This was a phrase that colonists used during the early 18th century to express to Parliament their disappointment with the high taxes and low representation in Parliament. Parliament demanded several taxes from the colonists, on everything from sugar to paper. The Stamp Act, which taxed paper, caused a huge uprising among colonists, arguably one of the causes of the Civil War. These taxes were imposed on the colonies in order to pay off Britain’s debt from the French and Indian War. The taxes were the main cause for the Revolutionary War.

    As mentioned above, taxation without representation is alluded to many times in the book. One of the taxes that Parliament imposed on the colonists was the Tea Act, forcing colonists to buy from only one tea company, and creating a monopoly. This eventually caused the uprising of the Boston Tea Party, which resulted in Parliament declaring the Intolerable Acts, which limited the rights of the colonies’ governments. In response to the Intolerable Acts, colonists met at the First Continental Congress to discuss what to do. They decided to meet again, at the Second Continental Congresses. Here, they wrote to the King of England the Olive Branch Petition, as a last peace offering before war. When the King didn’t accept this, the colonists wrote the Declaration of Independence, officially declaring our freedom, and beginning the fight which would become the American Revolutionary War.

    I believe Octavian and Cassiopeia’s fear of their donor pulling out will come true. I think the College will be doomed, and it will be up to the newly educated Octavian to find a solution. I think he will talk his mom, Cassiopeia, into finding LC again. He will convince her to flirt with and possibly marry LC, but under one condition: he must continue his donations to the College. After this happens, I think 03-01 will realize that Octavian is smarter than he is, and eventually, Octavian will take over the country. I don’t see myself in Octavian as a character. He is much more philosophical than me. He examines everything he does and deducts a solution as to what it shows about his character. I am more likely to go with the flow of what everyone else does, and I don’t analyze my personality as often or as closely as Octavian does throughout Part 1 of the book.

  48. Celia Crompton

    The Murder of Jim Fisk by H.W. Brands is a riveting tale that begins with 2 funerals: a small, unimportant seeming one in Paris and another in New York City that tens of thousands attend. The latter is for a famous commander. After those two parts of the book that seem to be the more recent sections, or “the present” at the time period of the book, a girl named Josie discusses at length Vanderbilt, Gould, and Drew and their strategies in their taking over of the railroad industry. She seems to be an observer and close friend or lover of Fisk. She knows a lot about their practices and plans, despite her being a woman in such a time period, and has a lot of planning herself. A big part of the book so far is the Erie Railroad. All players seem to be fighting for this particular track. Later on, it is made clear that she married Fisk for his wealth as much as love. She also describes Fisk’s character a lot: he is passionate, persuasive, self-made, and a big fan of opera. So far I think this is a love story. The bias would be in Josie’s favor as she is the one making most of the observations, so all we know is based on what she’s telling us about the other characters, whom she seems to judge based on wealth and success.
    Contextualization: This book takes place in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s, a time of wealth and change of industry. While the book is mostly describing the fight for control of the railroads so far by tycoons like Vanderbilt, we can assess that at the same time many other industries are being revolutionized, such as refining oil by Rockefeller and the making of steel by Carnegie. This also means that the distribution of wealth between classes is becoming less diverse: poor people are suffering in cities and plants that are filled with bad working conditions, unlivable wages, child labor, and poor quality of goods, which is “justified” by the social Darwinism that tycoons take as their mantra. Also at the same time of this book, the Gilded Age, immigrants from Western Europe flooded America’s gates seeking greater economic opportunity.
    We studied how important railroads were to this period, and how they influenced a lot of future events. In fact, they were so important that the men that controlled them became the richest in the world, like Vanderbilt. This industry was important because it led to the easy transport of goods all over the country and connected industries coast to coast, and made it so the time to get from California to New York was under a week for the first time ever. These incredible innovations in railroad tech that help the US form a booming economy then give the US the option to become a world power, which influences the rest of history.
    I think the story will begin to talk about what led up to Fisk’s murder soon, and what he did wrong, because at this point Josie seems somewhat omniscient about the events she’s retelling. I predict that he made a really bad under the table business deal (common for tycoons in that period) and will be ransomed and killed for not paying it. I also think he was the man in the second funeral.

  49. Lily Meinel

    A) I am reading The Wilderness of Ruin by Roseanne Montillo. The book starts out 53 years after Jesse Pomeroy was put into jail for his murders. He was being transferred from the prison he was in. When he gets out it is 1929 so for him a lot of thing changed in the world. Then the book flashes back to 1872 when John Tyler was president. A little boy named Robert Maire was taken to the woods where an older boy (who I think is Jesse) killed Robert. The police had never seen anything like this. Jesse as a child was beaten and sexually molested by his father. The newspapers called the person doing all the killing the boy torture. Children thought that Jesse was a little off. But he played with the boys in the neighborhoods. He loved to play Indians and Scout and Jesse was always a Indian. He wanted to Indians to win. Jesse went to the police station because he felt bad about the crimes he committed and Joseph Kennedy was there. He pointed Jesse out to the police as the boy torture. The police thought it was odd that Jesse had remorse for what he had done. Jesse mother Ruth Ann never thought there was anything wrong with Jesse. In 1872 Jess admitted to being the boy torture. He was not affected by the victims testifying or the sentence he got. That is all that has happened so far. I do not think there are any bias in the book so far, but I am only 50 some pages into the book. It is a story told in third person and gives the side of the towns feeling about the murders and Jesse’s.

    B) The second great awakening is happening during the time period the book is in. the book talks about school reforms and Asylums coming into play. The book also talks about the Lowell Mills popping up and attacking people to cities. Then it jumps from that time period to the industrial age. When railroads and bridges were being built. More inventions were coming into play like the steam boat.

    C) We studied the second great awakening and went over all the reforms that happened. We talked about Jane Addams and how she pushed for mental health reforms. That is why asylums started to pop up in the book I am reading. People started to get moved from prisons to asylums because it was a better place for them. Also religion was on the rise again. Immigration was also happening from the irish and the germans. It was the second wave of immigration. There was more american nativism as well because of the german and irish immigrants.

    D) I think Jesse is going to eventually see what he did to those boy was wrong. I do not really no what is going to happen because I am not that far into the book right now. I think that there might be a copycat killer that will copy Jesse. I give this book a B because it is kind of slow.

  50. Aaron Stottlemyer

    The book Ghost Soldiers is not about a team of hell-bent ghost’s seeking revenge on ISIS for some horrible deed like I previously thought; it is in fact about the American Intervention in the Japanese conquest of the Philippines during WWII led by MacArthur and General Walter Krueger, and it goes over one of the largest rescue missions of POWs in American history. The book starts on the Japanese massacre of Puerto Princess Bay, an event that saw the murders of hundreds of POWs by Japanese solders. One of the biggest problems in fighting the incursion was the fact that the Japanese would rather kill all their POWs instead of having them be captured, and the book mentions the August Kill-All Order, which was issued in Tokyo that stated that if militaristic tensions were to rise in certain areas, then the Japanese were instructed to kill off all POWs in their possession. The Japanese currently held thousands of POWs in various camps around the island; the prisoners were treated as slaves and were commonly used to repair equipment/roads destroyed in bombings. In fact, many of the prisoners were shipped off to Japan to work as coal miners. The Ghosts of Bataan were American POWs who weren’t shipped off to work as slaves in Japan from the city of Cabanatuan (which held the largest amount of American POWs in all of the Philippines). Soon the book begins to go over the daily lives of American solders, and how increasingly futile the war efforts became. Supplies were cut off, and it was feared that the troops would not be able to survive until rescue came. Food rations ran out, and soldiers were forced to eat anything they could find: Dogs, cats, lizards, monkeys, even their own horses. The book goes over the spread of disease in great detail, “in their thousands the parasites were reproducing inside him, Plasmodium vivax bursting from his liver and into his bloodstream. The doctor had nothing with which to treat himself”.
    One of the biggest problems for the Americans sent to fight in the Philippines was the lack of rations given to the American troops. Not to say that they were ungenerously supplied, but the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor completely crippled America’s naval dominance. Thus, the possibility of rescue was practically obsolete, and the defense general Edward P. King even claimed that surrender was a very viable option, however he feared that doing so would be the largest surrender America has ever seen, second only to the surrender of the Confederate Army in the Civil War.
    So far, the rescue mission can be easily compared to the Vietnam War, and is actually a lot worse in many ways. First of all, the morale of the American troops was next to none; the threat of random Japanese attacks caused little to no sleep between all of the soldiers. In fact, the Japanese actually attached banners to their bombing jets, with messages telling the Americans how futile their resistance was, and some even showing pornographic imagery as a way to both persuade the American troops into surrender and boost the Japanese troops’ morale. Although that didn’t quite happen in the Vietnam War, both events showed American fear over the threat of loss, and the need to pull out troops. However, unlike the Vietnam War, it wasn’t as simple to back out of the war as our naval powers were completely cut off from Asia.
    So far, this book is amazing. It shows the futility of the American war efforts, and makes you fear for both the soldiers’ lives and the POWs that remain under Japanese control. It goes into bloody detail as it explains how the Americans were escaping from the Japanese, and even goes over a few escapees from imprisonment camps. I hope that things are going to turn out well for our men in blue, however realistically I fear that things aren’t going to go so well for them.

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